NET FORCES IN QCD Back to the Contents





QCD, Net Force and Gravitation


New insights from QUATERNION GRAVITATION (yellow buttons above) and QQD (especially page 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9) are not yet implemented.

Conclusions up to November 2015
When colors repel or attract each other, a color collective might yield a color net force. The first two pages of the storyline NET FORCES (gray buttons) give a mechanism how a neutral electric charge collective contracts and causes an attractive force on electric charges outside the collective. (Without magnetic field, so for low charge velocities only. Or very short lengths of time.) A likewise force should act between the colors in every single Feynman diagram that contributes. The storyline NET FORCES IN QCD (blue buttons) is set up in order to find an attracting remnant force between quarks and gluons that can be identified with gravitation. Well, the last paragraph of this page is the original contents of the first try as it was written somewhere in 2008, quite unfinished as it is. I haven't worked at it any further since.

My search for a net force comprising gravitation has come to a halt. The mechanism I found for gravitation is quite different. In page 3, 4 and 5 of the storyline NEKG (NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION, with black buttons) I argue the Higgs field is the gravitational field. Gravitation is a vacuum that consists of solid marbles, static not-contracting not-expanding marbles, and every time a coupling takes place a “Higgs particle” is absorbed and a marble disappears. The surrounding gravitational field sinks into the hole of the disappeared marble and while sinking drags along with it all particles in it, standing-still particles as well as moving particles. Gravitation is assumed to be the “streaming” of a liquid Bose condensate of vacuum marbles, excluding other forms to contribute. In (3.6) of page 3 of QUATERNION GRAVITATION, the Higgs field is proposed as a short-living intermediate state between the gravitational vacuum marble sea and matter, a result that is adopted since.

One of the latest branches at the tree of theories in this site is that color is replaced by quaternions, see the storyline about QQD, Quantum Quaternion Dynamics. The calculation rules of quaternions making up colors are complete now and without contradictions. The mapping of QQD on SU(3) is missing, but I miss the knowledge to do that.

At page 2 of the storyline QUATERNION GRAVITATION (yellow buttons) the vacuum marbles are identified with spin 1 gluon pairs - glu2ons as one can call them, a gluNon state with n=2. For gluNons, see the storyline NET FORCES IN QCD (blue buttons), page 7 and 8. If gluon pairs can, then larger color collectives will do too, is the message.

The backward time evolving version of my theory of gravitation starts at page 1 of the storyline THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE (gray buttons). At page 2, paragraph Massless coinciding of the same storyline this leads to a way to construct the photon from an electron and a positron that are massless coinciding. At page 4 of NET FORCE IN QED is worked out how the lepton Higgs field is constructed from spin 0 photons.

NET FORCE IN QCD, page 5 shows a similar way to construct the gluon from a quark and its antiquark, massless coinciding. This yields the possibility to construct spacetime and the hadron Higgs field from spin 0 gluons, colored spin 0 gluons, that are white in only one direction, the direction of time (see the Speculations up to (5.4) at page 5 of QQD.
(Hadrons are made of quarks. Hadrons = baryons + mesons. Baryons are made of 3 quarks or 3 antiquarks. Mesons are made of one quark and one antiquark.)

The color collectives are white gluNon states, white states of N bound gluons. White gluNons are called glueNballs. They should add to the superposition. Mind the color constant is approximately 1. All diagrams, simple as well as complicated, do count with same weight. Only energy can be a restriction in superposing contributions. To represent the vacuum marbles of gravitation the color collectives should not contract nor expand.

Within each others time border particles cancel each others Higgs field absorption and emission and can be massless. The time border depends on the involved gravitational field strengths, see (6.1) at paragraph 6, page 2 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. E.g. by “coincide” we mean: for electrons and positrons at the Earth surface, within a distance of about 10^-20 m, which is near to the highest resolution the vacuum marbles can support, as calculated in the pop-up frame radius of the Higgs boson.

The E = mc mass-energy of antiparticles, when within their time borders, counts as negative. So maybe energy is not such a restricting factor to color collectives after all.

One of the first tasks now is to investigate color collectives in quaternions, maybe page 8 of QQD will lead to something. As always I wonder if I can make it, with so little mathematical skills at my disposal. Formulas have never been my strongest point.

Is the search for any net force quite over now? At page 5 of NEKG, in the paragraph starting with “There is no Pressure from the outside”, I say: “A mechanism how the rearrangement of vacuum marbles actually works, is still lacking”. Just before this remark I suggest that the rearrangement of vacuum marbles takes place as one single quantum jump and doesn't need any extra mechanism. Just after the remark I note as a second suggestion that the theory of Erik Verlinde might come to the rescue. A third possibility might be the hole is filled by a net force acting between the gluons around the hole. The actual theory of gravitation then might be a combination of the mechanism from page 3 of NEKG and pages 1 and 2 from ELECTRIC NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER.

And in strong gravitation fields sole vacuum marbles - maybe even patches - may tear of, or boil from the vacuum marble grid, see the previous page in the storyline NET FORCES.

No, the search for a net force is not over.

QCD is a complete, full theory. We know all necessary computation rules. In principle one can calculate with it all color properties, all properties of the strong force. But the color coupling constant is about one, therefore complicated contributions count as valid as the simple ones. The involved Feynman diagrams diverge. Up until now no one can calculate this.

QCD renormalization calculates from 3 quarks in white start state onto those 3 quarks in white end state along all possible ways the reaction might have taken place. It is a big brother copy of QED.
Experimentally quarks cannot be separated and “open color” doesnít exist. Therefore there is no point in calculating one quark color start state to its end state.
There must be a different QCD renormalization for mesons too.

This includes automatically all reactions shown in page 3 of the storyline NET FORCES IN QCD, “Two gluons emitted simultaneously”.

It also automatically includes all reactions proposed at page 4, “Three gluons emitted simultaneously”.

It includes too all possible splittings and mergings of gluons in between the white start state and the white end state of the 3 quarks of the baryon. One gluon exploding in 1,000,000 gluons does contribute! The end of SUMMARY 1 shows gluons resemble complex numbers of length one and a determined angle. QQD 1 replaces gluons by quaternions.

When there is something up to my theory of gravitation, the vacuum marble sea, then a quark or gluon always is immersed in a sea of color, see the quaternion part of GRAVITATION, page 7, paragraph 4.

This certainly is not yet been done for all possible gluNon states - provided there is point to the gluNon concept. If existing, they should all be automatically included too in QCD renormalization. The gluNon states with higher N and non-zero orbital impulse momentum will be polarized in difficult ways. One has to incorporate all possible polarizations.

Can energy be a restricting factor? I mean, when a whole universe of gluons forms a contributing superposition, larger in total energy than our whole universe all together - it feels as if this wonít work. Energy must be a constraining factor. In page 8 is assumed “in (nearly) groundstate possibilities of higher N donít count.”. In the paragraph above at this page is suggested Higgs particle absorption and emission can cancel each other, eventually to zero; then mass, mass-energy, will play little role only.

In Color confinement, page 10 in NET FORCES IN QCD, is proposed that for the 3 quarks in the baryon, the large reduction of states in the course of returning to white end state, causes a force keeping the colors within. It says: The strength of the interaction is inversely proportional to the remaining number of worlds in interference. It starts from the assumption of the overwhelming urge to maintain white state, isn't it? Page 10 needs revision. The process itself should automatically be incorporated in QCD.

IF the colorshift approach is right, colorshift 1/6 gluons as well as all 1/6 colorshift states are forbidden, real as well as virtual, as argued in page 15, the previous page in the NET FORCES IN QCD storyline. This restricts the number of gluons in calculation.
IF the colorshift approach is right then in GRAVITATION, page 7, paragraph 3, about the 2/6 colorshift gluon in the baryon, it might turn out the colorshift 1/6 is the only colorshift existing. A quark then never emits a gluon. And all 2/6 colorshift gluons could be left out of calculation. (And how are the mesons? Is it “and all colorshift 3/6 gluons” too?)
But no, we use quaternions now, the colorshift approach is abandoned.

Can 1 color - 1 quark - emit 2 gluons simultaneously, as is argued at page 5 of NET FORCES IN QCD? In different directions? If not, then per cycle of 10^-23 seconds there only are 0, 1, 2 or 3 gluons allowed to be emitted simultaneously by the 3 quarks in the baryon. The difficult part then is those gluons splitting in more gluons, forming gluNon states.

Why 2 baryons, like a proton and a neutron, donít merge into one white 6-quark system? I guess it is energetically favorable to split up. But to calculate this is something different.

Is a net force in color collectives automatically included in QCD renormalization? It is all in renormalization of QCD. If we only could calculate it.

An early effort to net force in QCD

The particles 1 and 2 are quarks now and the wavy lines in the figures of the deep blue storyline are gluons, unless mentioned otherwise. The shown color depicts the color charge of the particle. Both quarks and gluons have color charge.

Despite the two virtual colorcharges appear in each others neighborhood, nearer than a proton diameter, at overlapping time intervals, they donít see each other since the connecting gluon between them is missing. Particles in superposition without explicitly mentioned any reacting particle between them, donít see each other, just like the electric charges in the according diagrams of QED. They live in different worlds.

Attractive: 00000
Repulsive: 00000
Net force: 00000

The next contributing diagram is

There is a law stating:

If the force-mediating particle has an even spin then equal named particles will attract each other and unequal named particles will repel each other.

If the force-mediating particle has an uneven spin then equal named particles will repel each other and unequal named particles will attract each other.

In the second part of the law one recognizes the spin1 photon causing negative charges to repel each other, positive charges to repel each other and an attraction between negative and positive charges.

Attractive: 20110
Repulsive: 21001
Net force: 0-111-1

Cyan colorcharges repel each other and so do the magenta charges. The magenta and cyan charges attract each other.

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Page 0
of the storyline
is a
of some pages of that line

This page is not yet entirely in

Read the


Suppose you have n identical bosons. The chance to get another identical boson when there are already n identical bosons present, is n+1 larger than when those n identical bosons had not been present (laser effect). When the private vacuum of a particle consists of innumerable identical gravitons, an eventual new graviton will virtually for sure be indistinguishable from the rest.


Apply quaternions when calculating colors of quarks and gluons.

Include gluNon states.

Try the strong coupling constant at
g = 1.

Discussion on
time reversed gravitation
starts in item 9 and 10
page 3 of storyline


One can skip 9 and read it later.
Then start with item 10.

Candy Kandinsky

THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3