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THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE Back to the Contents

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THE DIRECTION OF TIME

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FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION


                  

   A film play in reversed time direction - Gravitation

 
This page is built on my theory of gravitation. For that page 3, 4 and 5 in the storyline NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION is enough. Item 9 of this page investigates backward time contributions in QED. You need to know QED at the level of Feynman's book QED - The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. You can skip it and read it later. Item 10 and 11 read more easily, it investigates backward time development in a more Newtonian way. In Item 12 backward time development of gravitation is treated in my view. Item 13 is like item 10 and 11. Item 14 about neutrinos is partially using the colorshift, a concept that I introduced in the strong nuclear force and that is abandoned now. The colorshift is replaced by quaternions now, see the QQD storyline. This item needs revision. Item 15 and 16 treat more backward time evolutions.

Event A := Event B

means “Event A becomes Event B by means of time reversal”. In this page “time reversed” means: the film of the event being played backwards. The event before the := always can exist physically with a reasonable chance of occurrence. If the reversed event after the := cannot exist or is very unlikely, the event is indicated by an arrow.



9) Somewhere in the void between the galaxies there is a large cloud of atoms. They are all of the same kind, H2 or C-60 or anything. Deep in the cloud there are 14 atoms in each others neighborhood, see the red dots 1 up to 14 in the first picture. Atom 10 emits one photon in unknown direction. As experienced by us, Outside Observers, a spherical superposition of photons (one for every distinguishable direction) spreads with light speed from the atom. It passes by the atoms 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 13, 4 and 3, one after another without being absorbed, and finally arrives at atom 14. There the photon is absorbed, just before the sphere would have reached 2 and 1. The photon is observed, the wavefunction collapses.

 
A photon going from
atom 10 to atom 14
  The forward propagation is
as valid as the backward cone

The time reversed version of this course of events starts with a sphere of photon superpositions (through 14 and between the spheres of 2 and 3 in the picture) suddenly emerging in space and then shrinking down, back to the atom it came from (atom 10) and subsequently become absorbed there.

On itself this is not forbidden but in forward time space such superposition fronts donít occur this way. But wait, superposition shells cannot be observed. In this case the superposition is superposed by another superposition, unobservable either: the spherical superposition of photons spreading with light speed from atom 14. Mind this evolution is backward in time. But this superposition has a different evolution! It subsequently passes by atoms 13, 12 and 9 before simultaneously arriving at 10 and 11. It misses 4 absorption chances and is then absorbed by atom 10. But hey! the chance to skip 4 chances is larger than the chance to skip 8 chances of absorption! This means we have mistaken prevalent time direction: when a real photon is connecting atoms 10 and 14, then the chance the backward version occurs is larger than the chance to meet the forward version. In this case I would strongly advice not to be conservative here and conclude time to run backward there.

The photon connects atoms 10 and 14. The superposed photon-spheres from emission to absorption, forward as well as backward in time, are unobserved. As far as concerned the basic actions in QED and QCD, like the coupling, the backward time course of events is as valid as the forward time course.

In the second picture are shown four moments. There “t” is the normal, forward time. At each moment the photon shells forward and backward shown in one horizontal plane should contribute to the wavefunction of the photon between 10 an 14. 1) atom 10 at moment of emission plus the photon shell through 10 and 11; 2) a smaller red circle in a second horizontal plane plus the neighboring smaller red circle in the other cone; 3) in a third horizontal plane, summed another two such circles, having interchanges size more or less; 4) the photon shell between the spheres of 2 and 3 through 14 plus 14 at its moment of emission backward in time.

The version containing backward time contributions has different statistics than the version consisting of forward time contributions only. In principle it is calculable and the outcome of experiment then should decide. So far this is ordinary quantum mechanics.

To be fair, QED renormalization calculates the sum of all possible ways through all of spacetime the photon could have traveled from 10 to 14. All possible ways from 14 back to 10 are not added in QED renormalization. Nevertheless, QED works perfect without the backward version. I guess it has never been tried, adding the backward version in QED, but I think, since the coupling has no time arrow, there should have been a backward contribution in QED.

Unless there is time arrow in the vacuum itself, spoiling the superposition. If backward time vacuum is distinguishable from forward time vacuum then they will not superpose. A choice out of the two of them, forward and backward, will be made.

Well then, is there a time arrow in the cloud? If forward time vacuum and backward time vacuum are indistinguishable: no, there isnít. I mean, yes, there is, but only local and shortliving and supposed to occur in equal amounts forward and backward. There is a cloud of atoms and photons rushing between them, but a large scale time arrow is absent. That is, deep inside the cloud. But the border of the cloud emits the heat radiation fitting to the cloudís temperature into the void.


10) In the previous item we considered a large cloud of atoms somewhere in the void between the galaxies. We took them all of the same kind, H or H2 or C-60 buckyballs, or anything.

Letís make things a little bit worse. Under the force of gravity the cloud starts to contract, heats up and emits heat radiation of a still higher temperature into the void. The time reversed version of this is radiation from all over the sky around the cloud entering it, heating it up, which makes the cloud to expand and thus to cool down until it finally became the cloud of atoms it started with in the forward version. The heating-up, expansion and cooling down is okť, but where is the radiation coming from? Letís assume the void around the cloud to be that large there is no help to be expected from matter elsewhere. So the radiation comes out of the void, the void itself. This is unlikely. Finally an arrow of time has appeared.





11) On itself a time arrow is not that strange. In our universe a number of phenomena always go together:

  Attractive gravity
Absorption of Higgs field
Repulsive centrifugal force
 

(I know, page 1 of the storyline FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION, item 3 and 4, shows when the film of events is played backward - our definition of time reversal - attractive gravity remains attractive gravity, and repulsive centrifugal force remains repulsive centrifugal force. But this is not the last word to be spoken about this.)

and not completely absolute:

  Heat streaming from hot to cold
Light spreading from stars
Life
and some more
 

When put in motion and all connecting, all these things, as to speak, force each other to fit in like this.

But what is strange is how the, as to speak, first event chooses its time direction. I mean, time has two directions to go to, forward or backward. Imagine two compartments of space completely isolated from each other. In each of them a cloud as described is contracting and sets the arrow of time. Next the isolated spaces come in contact. How can it be their arrows of time always line up to point in the same direction?

I think they donít. Some clouds have forward time direction while others have backward time direction evolving. In the beginning of the universe the clouds of forward time direction became the galaxies we now see around us. The backward time evolving clouds are created at the end of the universe - letís suppose there are still such clouds then! - and are developing towards the beginning of the universe. To us this looks as I described: at the end of the universe as WE observe it, they heat up by incoming radiation, expand and cool down and change into the very large cloud of atoms we started our story with. The “incoming radiation” is their heat emission - that we thus do not observe. They are dark! Dark clouds evolving to dark galaxies where time is running backwards. And there are as many of them as the clouds of atoms at the end of our universe - the universe of us, Outside Observers - can provide.

When the film is played backwards, also the light rays from the scenery towards your eyes retrace their paths. Instead of receiving light from the scene, the retina now undergoes a (forced) emission of the same light towards the scene. The eye most probably is not adapted to accompany the forced emissions from the retina towards the scene with a signal from the retina to the brain. You won't see anything.





12) So we found it! - the arrow of time. It is in gravity. It wasnít in electromagnetism, QED. Also the strong force from QCD shows no arrow of time. (The weak force I donít discuss: I suspect intimate relationship of the Higgs particle with W+, W-, Z0 and sort the Higgs amongst them.)

My proposition at page 3, 4 and 5 of the storyline NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION is, when in the earth one Higgs particle disappears, along with it an amount of empty space of diameter 10^-20 ŗ 10^-21 meter disappears too. This results to gravitation of the form of the gravitational law of Newton.

In the time reversed version of this, Higgs field along with its associated amount of empty space, would appear where it formerly disappeared, and disappear where it appeared in the forward version. But then vacuum streams reversed direction, streaming out of the earth now and this is a repulsive gravity. Space expands there. Regard fig 5 in page 1 of NEKG storyline. The time reversed version of this picture starts with arrow 4, now pointing in opposite direction. The stream of gravity now drags it away from the earth, resulting in an arrow 3 that deviates away from the earth a little bit more. Repeating the process result in a parabolic or hyperbolic path away from the earth.

       “:=”       

The actual time reversed version of the left figure (identical but opposite black arrows and identical but opposite gray arrows) does not exist. The seemingly obvious examples of item 3 of page 1 of FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION are wrong. Both sides of the “time reversal equations” in item 3 do exist, but they are not each others time reversed versions.

Attractive gravity := repulsive gravity

and repelling gravity is not observed; nowhere.





13) The conclusion is, especially in the newly proposed theory of gravitation, that time canít be reversed. Sorry, no time reversal in one and the same vacuum! The backward time superpositions described in 9 (cloud of atoms, 14 of them better viewed) donít occur. QED would allow it, QCD too, but the act of giving mass not. The short list at the begin of 11 of always-going-together phenomena turns out to be absolute.

But then again, it should be possible to reverse ALL time arrows simultaneously. One would not notice something had changed. One only should not do this in the single one vacuum you are working in. I assume there is a time arrow in the vacuum and when simultaneously reversing all time arrows you have to reverse the time arrow of the vacuum too. In the figure of item 12 we have just reversed the proposed mechanism of gravitation supposing it is still acting between masses of normal matter and in a normal, forward time evolving vacuum - which is two times wrong. Processes presuming forward time over the space that processes take, and other processes presuming a backward evolving time over the same space, are allowed IN SUPERPOSITION. But when it comes to observation, time turns out to run forward OR backward there. Most probably because vacuum areas of opposite time direction are distinguishable.
But parts of the universe, created isolated from each other, might possess those different vacuums.




This is discussed to a larger extend at page 2 and 3 of



THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE

and in the storyline about QQD (Quantum Quaternion Dynamics) at page
CPT-theorem
and
Speculative thoughts about relativity



14) gl = gluon, lefthanded = spin + = , righthanded = spin - = , = neutrino, = antineutrino.

A := B means “A becomes B by means of time reversal”, that is, the film of the event being played backwards. The event before the := always can exist physically with a reasonable chance of occurrence. If the reversed event after the := cannot exist or is very unlikely, the event is indicated by a time arrow.

When the film of a spinning particle is reversed, you see it spin the opposite direction, isnít it?

spin := spin
spin := spin

When in forward time a gluon is gl  then its backward time counterpart is gl .

We furthermore accept according to the CPT theorem:

positive electric charge := negative electric charge
negative electric charge:= positive electric charge

particle := antiparticle
antiparticle := particle

In page 2 of the storyline QUATERNION GRAVITATION I propose the Higgs field as a superposition of gl gl and gl gl (spin 0), “gl” means “gluon”. The gravitational field is proposed as a superposition of gl gl (spin +2) and gl gl (spin -2). All fields are liquid bose condensates. These fields in concordance with the field then is the vacuum.

Suppose our vacuum consists of and backward time vacuum, as “observed” by us, consists of a bose condensate of . A backward time observer in its own vacuum would experience its own vacuum to consist of . While it would observe its own existable neutrinos as and .

When the backward time vacuum would have consisted of , as “observed” by us, the border between forward and backward vacuum would exhibit severe annihilation effects and all the vacuum would finally disappear.

When one of our real tries to cross the time border it disappears, being absorbed by the backward time vacuum and making it expand by its volume. Similar a backward time observer would see its disappear when crossing the border toward our part of the universe. But their disappearance is our emission, and we “observe” this as if the border spontaneously emits a inwards the time reversed area, while space shrinks by the amount of the ís volume.

Colorshift shifts from a color, e.g. cyan, to another color, e.g. magenta. This is a colorshift of +1/3 turn along the colorcircle, see picture at the right. When played reversed time direction, the shift is opposite:

colorshift +1/3 := colorshift -1/3
colorshift -1/3 := colorshift +1/3

So +1/6 gl -1/6 gl := -1/6 gl +1/6 gl and vice versa. The gravitational field remains the same.

+1/6 gl -1/6 gl := -1/6 gl +1/6 gl . So the Higgs field remains the same too, under time reversal.

The difference between forward and backward time vacuum is fully on the neutrino part. A tiny difference, but sufficient to make the vacuums distinguishable and thus to spoil their superposition.



(This item 14 is yet to be worked out in quaternions.



15) Now it seems clear where the antimatter went, at the beginning of the universe. It had not disappeared; it hasn't not-being-created either; there is no excess of matter over antimatter. It is there, in the center of the voids: repelling-gravity, backward time evolving, dark antimatter galaxies. I guess there are clusters of them there, dark clusters connected by dark filaments, just as much as ours. The dark filaments perpendicularly cross the planes spanned up by the bright filaments that are connecting our galaxy clusters, and vice versa. Two filament systems, one dark, one bright, penetrating each other without touching.

But then again, IF the matter in the voids is backward time evolving (hence its darkness), THEN it must have been created at the end of our universe. IF backward time evolving matter is antimatter, then the beginning of our universe where primordial clouds start to contract, is mixed with uttermost old dark antimatter, reaching the end of their universe. Thus it is not “our” antimatter we “see” there. Our antimatter, IF backward time evolving, has gone the other time direction, starting from the beginning of the universe. Then in our universe now, the amounts of matter and antimatter not necessary have to match.

There might be 4 streams there, at the beginning of the universe called 0. First there is a forward matter stream that is us and there is our backward antimatter stream, them. Depicting the timeline:
them 0 us
  us2 0 them2
Both us and them originate at 0 and necessarily consist of equal amounts. Next there would be a backward antimatter stream evolving from the end of our universe towards its end at 0, called them2. And there might be another forward matter stream originating long before 0 and proceeding towards its end at 0, us2. The amount of us not necessarily equals the amount of them2. Our universe, us + them2, might consist of different amounts of matter and antimatter.

Another way of connecting the streams might be:
  us2 0 us
them 0 them2


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The universe expands. But

WHO DID IT?

Read the compelling story in the next page of

THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE



Donít you see



THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4  5
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER  1  2  3  4
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS ON MASSES  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE  1  2  3  4  5
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3
OTHER REMARKS ON BIOLOGY  1  2  3