Net force




Updated 2022-03-16

This is a concluding page about the search for a net force comprising gravitation. It is considered now a previous attempt.

Nowadays I assume gravitation to be a streaming of vacuum marbles, a streaming of a liquid Bose condensate of vacuum marbles, excluding other forms to contribute. There the Higgs field curves spacetime and directly thereafter the act of gravitation curves it back to zero net curvature, see chapter 1 of TONE, or storyline NEG, NEWTON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION.

In the net force view of this page patches of space contract due to virtual particle reaction, as opposed to the streaming vacuum marble view that treats patches of space as being conserved in volume, the patches having no net contraction nor net expansion.

Despite the view of this page being a little out of date I decided to keep it.



Net force in vacuum: the virtual sea

We have three basic forces acting on particles:

1) Electromagnetism P (the P from Photon),

2) The weak nuclear force W (from Weak, its three mediating particles W+, W- , Z-null)

3) The strong nuclear force G (from its mediating particle the Gluon).

It's a little inconvenient the particle of gravity, the Graviton, is beginning with a G too.



The particles of the Standard Model
The Standard Model

Bosons in circles, fermions in rectangles. Of all possible coupling 9 do exist, 12 don't. So the best part of the possible interactions does not exist. By example, electrons don't couple. Without photons they don't see each other. Photons don't couple with each other too. Their wavefunctions just superpose. So there are not too many interactions between the fundamental particles.


The storyline ELECTRIC NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER (page 1 of this storyline) shows that P is a long-range force that becomes short-range when originating from a homogeneous mixture of even amounts of positive and negative electric charges.

As discussed in the storyline NET FORCE IN QED (page 2 of this storyline) the electric charges of the vacuum are not such a mixture. It turns out the electric net force in one Feynman diagram is zero. The electric charges of two different superposing Feynman diagrams do not see each other.

The weak nuclear force - the weak force - is a force that can change taste. And it can change the generation, or family, to which the particle belongs. In that quality it reacts with all known particles including itself, except for the other two force-mediating particles, the photon and the gluon. That is, the electric charges of the W+ and W- couple to the photon, but the photon and the gluon have zero taste. It is unknown whether this gives rise to a force in the meaning of an acceleration (change of velocity properties). As long as we have no reason to assume so, we suppose there isn't. And so there is no net force either. W is short-range because of the large mass of the W+W-Z0 particles.

In the scheme I sort the Higgs particle H0 amongst the weak force particles.

That leaves only one candidate for a net force in the vacuum: the strong nuclear force. The strong coupling constant is about 1. Higher order Feynman diagrams (more particles involved) do contribute significantly to the superposition. As a matter of fact all possible diagrams contribute with nearly equal strength.

A well-mixed cloud of colors might yield a local force in the same way as real electric charges do in the storyline ELECTRIC NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER. Local force, a concept introduced there, was meant to build space from local patches that are attracting only their direct neighbor patches in space (and not the patches further away), in doing so making a short-range force acting like gravitation.

The original idea was that gluons and quark pairs would appear and disappear in empty space, their lifetime bound by the uncertainty relations of Heisenberg. It is a kind of virtual quark gluon gas. Since the gas is virtual it can be considered as to embody the space it is in. It not IS space, it doesn't define it, but it is part of the fabric space is made of.

Imagine a pair of particles emerging in vacuum. Suppose the two members of the pair attract each other. Then such an emerging pair does contract a tiny little bit before disappearing again and in doing so it does have its influence on real particles in it. This is the same reasoning as is used in accepted QED, see paragraph 1) in When the electron approaches the positron.. in 2.3 Dark Dynamics in TONE; or see paragraph 1) at page 5 of NETFORCE IN QED.

In the short while of their existence the patch of space the pairs embody contracts a tiny little bit. The patch only attracts its direct neighbors and drags them along with its contraction. And because all of space is made of likewise contracting patches, all of space would contract.

The original idea was too that all the other particles from the Standard Model depicted above, would appear as virtual particles too, a kind of Standard Model Gas. The patches of the gas, each tiny little bit of the time they existed, then would contract a tiny little bit (that contraction yet to be proven to exist) before the virtual particles the patch consists of would disappear again.

Mind then there is difference in exposure time from the different particles of the Standard Model. And the rate of contribution differs: photon mediated contributions suffer from an amplitude reduction of factor 0.01 for each extra pair of couplings; while gluon mediated contributions have no reduction when the number of reactions per contribution (Feynman diagram) grows. And as said, the electric charges of the vacuum of two different superposing Feynman diagrams do not see each other, the electric net force in the vacuum is zero.

As such a net force would comprise gravitation.

Mark this would be time asymmetric. The transition from a tiny larger patch into a tiny smaller patch, embodying a contraction of space as we observe it, will be observed from backward time evolving vacuum as a transition from a tiny smaller patch to a tiny larger patch. Which is an expansion as observed by them.

However, instead of concluding to an asymmetry in time one can conclude there is a time arrow in the vacuum and that there are two kinds of vacuum, one with forward time and one with backward time evolvement. As such it would resemble the picture from chapter 2 of TONE or page 2 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE (that is the streaming vacuum marble view.)

In TONE and in the storyline QUATERNION GRAVITATION is supposed the vacuum to consist of vacuum particles, that turn out to be gluon pairs (that turn out to be quaternions). In (3.26) in Higgs mechanism 2 at page 3 of QUATERNION GRAVITATION, is stated that two gluons of opposite sign do not react (In TONE this is only hinted at, in Discussion item 3.6). The two members of one vacuum marble then do not interact.

In the view of the Standard Model Virtual Particle Gas we likewise just can state that the members of an emerging color pair of opposite sign neither attract nor repulse each other, maintaining time symmetry between matter and antimatter.

Anyhow, in the streaming vacuum marble view holds that

- OR the two gluons of one vacuum particle react with each other, leading to an attraction between the gluons, that on its turn can be expected to lead to some kind of equilibrium situation - is the vacuum still stable then? (See Vacuum stability, page 5 of QUATERNION GRAVITATION). And is a contraction of patches contributing to gravitation?

- OR the two gluons from one vacuum particle DON'T react with each other. In this website is chosen for the latter. Calculation show the gravitational law of Newton is derived (page 3, 4 and 5 of NEG) and no further adjustments are needed (except for General Relativity, see chapter 1 of TONE, paragraph 1.3 General Relativity). And the fluid conserved-space view has a calculation, see Higgsradius, while in the contracting patches approach any calculation is still missing.

To conclude, the view of this page is considered a Previous Attempt and is abandoned now.