# The Spin Consideration

It is always told that the graviton has spin +2 or -2 and that the Higgs particle has spin 0.

Let's propose the vacuum that is *gravity* to consists of a superposition of a glue2ball field gl gl (spin +2) and a glue2ball field gl gl (spin -2). *)

*) Here gl

means gluon

and a *glue2ball* is a glueball made of 2 gluons; = spin +1 and = spin -1.

The vacuum is built from *vacuum marbles* placed neatly next to each other in all directions and each marble is called a graviton

. Here this graviton consists of 2 gluons, the vacuum that is *gravitation* is taken to consist of gravitons made of two gluons each. This is meant to hold only for the *third generation*, quarks t and b, the tau particle and the tau neutrinos. The reason for this will be made clear in the next two pages. For the moment you can take in mind that the 1rst and 2nd generation are made of likewise composites.

The vacuum that is the 3rd Higgs field **) consists likewise of a glue2ball field gl gl and a glue2ball field gl gl (both spin 0). The vacuum that is the 3rd Higgs field Higgs field is taken to consist of Higgs particles

, also made of two gluons.

**) With the expression 3rd Higgs field

I again get ahead of the next two pages. Keep in mind for the moment that the 3rd Higgs field belongs to the 3rd generation. If you meet somewhere in this website the expression hadronic Higgs field

or leptonic Higgs field

, that is a *previous attempt*, by me forgotten so far to be replaced by the expression 3rd Higgs field

.

Suppose one of the two gluons from the graviton gl gl absorbs a graviton gl gl . Three gluons merge easier than two gluons, as is argued at page 7 of the QCD storyline. I tried to work out the gluNon concept at that page. You can read that later if you take for granted that 3 gluons merge easier than 2 gluons. And that 2 gluons can form a *glu2on*, a composite made of 2 gluons that merge at least not immediately. When the glu2on is colorless I call it a *glue2ball*.

( gl , spin +1) + ( gl gl , spin -2) --> ( gl , spin -1) (3.1)

Here ( gl , spin +1) is one of the two gluons from gl gl . The other gluon from the pair gl gl remains unaffected. The disappeared graviton leaves an empty spot at the place it had occupied. So the two gravitons change into one empty spot and one Higgs particle of same volume (is assumed) as the graviton:

gl gl + gl gl --> gl gl + empty spot (3.2)

Then the Higgs particle gl gl is absorbed at the coupling of some particle in the course of renormalization, leaving another empty place there.

So finally 2 gravitons converted to 2 empty spots and 1 Higgs absorption. (3.3)

This process rules out the possibility of taking e.g. the gl gl as vacuum particle while the other, gl gl , could be real. We need them both as vacuum particles.

If one gluon in graviton gl gl and one gluon in graviton gl gl would just interchange their spin, one gets gl gl and gl gl , which are two Higgs particles. Now there are two Higgs particles created in one single strike to be absorbed in the course of renormalization. This is thought to take place at the location of a quark, the quark mediates this spin conversion.

So then 2 gravitons convert to 2 empty spots and 2 Higgs absorptions. (3.4)

(3.4) might yield a heavier particle than (3.3) and might only form when sufficient amounts of energy are available. The Higgs mechanism (3.4) should work then all over the track of the heavy particle as long as sufficient energy is available.

The sagging in of the vacuum field into the two empty spots yields two units

of gravitation. The one or two Higgs absorption embody one or two units

of acquiring mass. For the *ponderable mass* (causing the gravitational field) to be proportional to the *inert mass*, which is the main assuption in GR (general relativity), the amount of empty spots must be proportional to the number of Higgs absorptions.

In (3.1) and (3.2) graviton 1, to give them names, had absorbed vacuum marble graviton 2 and in doing so acquires the energy of graviton 2 added to its own energy. It is not precisely the Higgs mechanism because it had absorbed a graviton and not a Higgs particle. So it is in doubt whether the absorbing graviton gains mass. But it has caused one empty spot that will be filled in from the outside and this is one bit of gravitation. A vacuum locally acquiring energy, a *local excited state of the vacuum*, is not yet defined, maybe even not possible. So we conclude this reaction will not take place spontaneously in empty space. But it does occur in the neighborhood of a quark ready to give that quark its mass. (3.5)

So we conclude there don't have to be two fields, a gravitational field AND a Higgs field. When a Higgs vacuum marble emerges, it is absorbed immediately thereafter. The 3rd generation vacuum then is one single grid of gravitons. The 3rd Higgs field, its Higgs particle, only does exist as a short-living intermediate state between the gravitational field and any coupling anywhere. The link between space and matter. (3.6)

The *gravitational field* consists of what we called *gravitons*, marble-like pieces of space. Sometimes the gravitons are filled in with colored gluon pairs, in doing so forming the third Higgs field. The field consisting of colored gluon pairs is the strongest field and it is this field that is supposed to form *the vacuum*, the grid onto which all events are attached. More about it below.

Superposed to the colored gluon pairs Higgs field for the 1rst generation are the *spin 0 photon Higgs field* for the 2nd generation and the *spin 0 neutrinophoton Higgs field* for the 1rst generation. More about it in the next two pages.

Mind superposed contributions don't see each other. An absorption from a Higgs field choses which Higgs field becomes real, at that spacetime point of absorption. The absorption holds as a measurement of the Higgs field.

As said, the 1rst generation (quarks u and d, the electron and the positron, and the electron neutrinos) absorps from the neutrinophoton Higgs field. The absorption from the Higgs field is the only connection with the vacuum, the only way to conclude that the absorbing particle is here and now. As long as the absorbing particle does so, there is no connection to the third Higgs field, the vacuum made of colored gluon pairs. So as far as our interactions reach, the third field doesn't exist, although it still is the strongest vacuum field. We, ordinary people, absorb from the 1rst Higgs field, the neutrinophoton vacuum field, and that is the field with respect to which are defined our measurements of space (in meters) and time (in seconds).

The u and d quark from the first generation react with colorforce at a pace of 10^23 reactions per second. To give the u and d quark its mass in every reaction, I am forced to conclude that the neutrinophoton absorption must have this pace too. In the next two pages will appear reasons how this comes to be.

As observed from us, the three Higgs fields are superposed onto each other. But what are the three field doing when we are not looking? That is, when there is no absorption from one of the fields? In between the absorptions, as to speak? Do the three Higgs field cohere to one vacuum field, when we are not looking? Is spacetime spanned up by the third Higgs field, the colored gluon pairs field? Then somehow the neutrinophoton Higgs field is an actor, just an actor, in the play of the spacetime gluon pair Higgs field.

## The Quaternion Approach

Take (3.1), (3.2) and (3.3). We take ( i -i ) as a vacuum particle, a vacuum marble, consisting of the gluons i and -i, where i and -i are quaternion units.

We start with two neighboring vacuum marbles, e.g.

( i -i ) ( i -i ) (3.7)

This is not a multiplication, it are just two neighboring vacuum particles placed next to each other. Now we assume the right gluon of the first vacuum marble ( -i ) to absorb the entire second vacuum marble ( i -i ). Therefore we have to multiply all merging gluon colors (now given by quaternion units). The left gluon of that first vacuum marble is unaffected.

If we rename ( i -i ) ( i -i ) as ( i a ) ( b c ) then there are 6 multiplication orders: abc, acb, bac, bca, cab, cba. In gluon-gluon reactions there is no preferred multiplication order and so the 6 possible outcomes superpose. In this case they all give same outcome -i, so the superposed possibilities merge to one possibility again.

-i * i * -i = -i * -i * i = i * -i * -i = i * -i * -i = -i * i * -i = -i * -i * i = -i (3.8)

The result is, as far as the colors are concerned, that the first vacuum marble is unchanged and the second vacuum marble is absorbed, leaving behind a hole in the vacuum, in accordance with the spin consideration.

(Quaternion multiplication has the *associative property*. As long as you don't change the order of multiplication, it doesn't matter whether you first multiply the last two gluons and then multiply by the first gluon, or multiply the first and second gluon and then multiply with the third one.)

The vacuum now is a superposition of ( i -i ), ( j -j ), ( k -k ) and ( 1 1 ) from (2.8) at the previous page, each in spin state gl gl or gl gl . So 8 fields altogether. (3.9)

Let's pick up (3.2) again. We have a Higgs particle gl gl . The conversion in which the Higgs particle was created, is thought to take place at the location of a quark, the quark mediates this spin conversion. Take in mind a baryon, three quarks together. If this conversion also detaches the gluons from each other, then you have two independent gluons of opposite color. Then one gluon can go to the second quark and the other to the third quark.

(gl gl ) Higgs particle --> (gl ) (gl ) two independent gluons (3.10)

So 2 gravitons disappear from the vacuum, reducing it by their volume, and 2 gluons appear. Vacuum converts into matter. Subsequently the gluons are absorbed by the two quarks which is the Higgs field absorbing giving them mass. (3.11)