The Big Bang


This page is added to TONE because of the (possible) derivation of the field of all possible velocities, and because it possibly identifies an expanding frame with the field of all possible velocities.

When you are reading TONE, some remarks in this paragraph run ahead of several pages of TONE yet to come. When you are reading TONE for the first time, don't try to follow it completely by clicking all the links to that pages. After the last page of TONE you can read this page again.

The identical fermion explosion

According to page 3 up to and including page 6 of NEG (storyline NEWTON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION) mass absorption from the Higgs field curves space and the subsequent action of gravity curves it back. Finally gravitation does not curve spacetime. That is to say,

The curve-and-curveback action accompanying every Higgs field absorption yields remnant effects that accumulate and that we observe as gravitation, but the background grid remained flat (virtually flat) all the time       (1.1)

Take also into account the existence of the frames of reference of receding galaxies (observed), CMB (observed) (CMB = Cosmic Microwave Background), neutrinos (not observed as frame) and gravitational waves (not observed as frame): non of them are fundamental frames, see also paragraph Standstill at page 5 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. Therefore I would propose to consider that

The view of the BB (Big Bang) that fits the best, is an ordinary explosion occurring in flat empty space that is already existing and is made of vacuum particles       (1.2)

Then the BB is not a fundamental feature shaping spacetime. Light waves from distant galaxies no longer arrive while still expanding, as is said in paragraph The universe expands at page 5 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.

The TONE storyline concludes (especially spoken out in the chapter 4 conclusions and the Epilogue) that

The quark is the only elementary particle existing       (1.3)

This opens the possibility that

The bunch of particles the BB consists of, very well might have been identical quarks only       (1.4)

If so, then immediately after the BB the particles must obey the Pauli exclusion principle, the demand for fermions that says

Two identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state       (1.5)

Then it might be at the BB, when started out as innumerable identical elementary particles much nearer to each other than e.g. 0.9 fm, that is chosen for expansion as the fastest way to obey the fermion demand, since then every quark has at least a different velocity. So

The BB is driven by an identical-fermion explosion
(a fermion explosion in brief)       (1.6)

(If was chosen for an implosion instead of an explosion, this would have worked too. The imploding identical particles approach each other, go right through each other and then as yet form an explosion.)

The fermion explosion is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. So despite it is regarded as an ordinary explosion taking place in flat spacetime, there still is a fundamental feature at work.

The fermion explosion of the vacuum particles

The BB so far, without saying it explicitly, is regarded as an explosion of matter, the matter of our universe. The already mentioned page 3 up to and including page 6 of NEG show that if one assumes the vacuum to be built of particles, vacuum particles as we call them, gravitation can be concluded. Let's investigate that the fermion explosion not only yielded the expansion of our matter in the universe but also formed the expansion of the vacuum particles.

For the Pauli exclusion principle to work there is needed some space, I guess. I presume the Pauli exclusion principle can be defined in two dimensions and maybe even in one dimension, but not in zero dimensions. Therefore I presume already existing space as is suggested in (1.2), not only for the fermion explosion of our matter, but also for the fermion explosion of the primordial vacuum particles.

If you have an expanding frame and there was one elementary particle in every possible place of it and no particle would have any extra velocity relative to the expanding frame (every particle locally stands still with respect to the expanding frame), then every possible velocity would be possessed by precisely one particle.

Suppose the fermion explosion is very precise. The velocities of the vacuum particles then are determined about 100 %.

The Heisenberg uncertainty relation is:

Δp * Δx h/2       (2.1)

p = impulse, x = position, h = constant of Planck

Therefore, according to the uncertainty principle the locations of the velocity of each vacuum particle in the fermion explosion are uncertain about 100 %. Each velocity with its precise direction and precise magnitude can have any location. This doesn't affect the velocities themselves, all velocities are supposed to maintain magnitude and direction, only the location becomes completely uncertain. The picture we get then is that in every point of spacetime every possible velocity is present, embodied by at least one vacuum particle. This is equal to the Field of all possible velocities that from the beginning was an essential part of the theory of gravitation in this website.

The fermion explosion of vacuum particles gives birth to the field of all possible velocities       (2.2)

Originally in my theory of gravitation the Higgs field was a superposition of all possible fields that has one specific velocity all over space. It seemed the most logical guess. *)

However, when regarding what are real particles and what are superpositions in the fermion explosion, one gets a different picture. In the fermion explosion all participating particles are real relative to each other, that's how the fermion demand works. In the Heisenberg requirement the different locations are superpositions relative to each other: a measurement of one location makes that location real while the other locations would vanish (collapse of the wavefunction). So when fermion and Heisenberg demands are applied together, one gets one fermion explosion in every possible place and when an observation takes place (one Higgs field absorption) only one fermion explosion remains at the specific spacetime point of the Higgs absorption. In other words, not the entire field of one specific velocity would be a Higgs field at the moment of Higgs absorption, but at the location of Higgs field absorption an entire fermion explosion would remain, while the fermion explosions at all other places would vanish (collaps of the wavefunction). Anyway, the Higgs field absorbing particle still stands still relative to the vacuum, as being the only point obeying that requirement. At the moment of Higgs field absorption each particle is the center of the universe at the moment of the BB (the BB of the vacuum particles).

To obey that last expression, at the moment of the BB, we need another Heisenberg relation:

ΔE * Δt h/2       (2.3)

E = energy, t = time, h = constant of Planck

When we fix the energy E of the fermion explosion at 0 (zero) and in doing so determine it for 100 %, then the moment of explosion t would be 100 % uncertain:

The fermion explosion of vacuum particles can be any moment in time       (2.4)

It is a kind of field of all possible expansions (very first state only), where all possible = ranging all over space. In (3.2) we will see how this requirement is fulfilled.

As soon as the fermion exclusion principle could work, the Heisenberg uncertainty relations would work too. So if the vacuum particles have been driven apart by a fermion explosion, then from the very first moment the field of all possible velocities would have been present, instead of the fermion explosion. One very well could say that there never was a fermion explosion of the vacuum particles, although the BB of vacuum particles still can be treated mathematically as a fermion expansion. Compare the column at the right from the previous page of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, around the fireworks explosion.

*) My theory of gravitation as it is now has no objections against simultaneous absorption of a Higgs particle at different places from the same Higgs field (possessing one specific velocity). That would be very coincidentally, but there is no objection. The absorption of a Higgs particle then holds as an observation of that particular Higgs field with one specific velocity (namely zero) all over space. That Higgs field of one specific velocity (just before the Higss particle absorption) was thought of as one vast three dimensional grid of innummerable vacuum particles all simultaneous existing, the entire grid filled with identical vacuum particles all moving side by side at the same velocity. Identical except for their location that differs at least one vacuum particle diameter (taken as 10^-21 m). They are assumed to be Bose condensates.

Antimatter vacuum particles

What is the vacuum? According to paragraph The three generations at page 5 of QG (QUATERNION GRAVITATION) each generation has its own Higgs field: the 3rd generation Higgs field consists of pairs of gluons made of colored quarks, the 2nd generation Higgs field is consisting of spin 0 photons that are colorless quarks with electric charge, and the 1rst generation Higgs field consists of spin 0 neutrinophotons that are equal to colorless quarks without electric charge. (For neutrinophotons see paragraph Neutrinophotons at page 4 of QG.) All fields are supposed to be Bose condensates that are a grid, the solid grid of the vacuum, solid as long as there is no Higgs field absorption from it.

We are still regarding the fermion explosion of vacuum particles. We have chosen the BB of the vacuum particles in its ultimate earliest state to consist of identical quarks. How to come from one field of identical quarks to three Higgs field Bose condensates?

In this website the vacuum particles of all three Higgs fields (colored gluon pairs; spin 0 photons; spin 0 neutrinophotons) ultimately consist of a quark and an antiquark within their time borders. The fermion explosion so far provides quarks only.

In this website is chosen that

matter goes forward in time and antimatter goes backward in time       (3.1)

There is chosen to follow the scenario as sketched in item 15 at page 1 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, where at the BB the matter goes forward in time while the antimatter goes backward in time starting from the BB, in doing so forming an antimatter universe that is completely separated from our universe. Also those antimatter consisted initially of identical antiquarks only. (Antiquarks as we see it. They see quarks, they see themselves as matter and see us as consisting of antimatter).

So to get the antiquarks in our vacuum I have to assume a second fermion explosion right through the first fermion explosion and identical to it, except for that it yields antiquarks instead of quarks.

In the 3rd alinea of paragraph The electron-positron photon Higgs field at page 5 of NET FORCE IN QED, and tried to work out a little further in paragraph Dark mechanics at page 2 of QG, the mass of a quark and the mass of the identical antiquark (except for being anti) cancel each other to precisely zero. So

The quark and antiquark explosions together have precisely energy zero       (3.2)

The just described scenario, also following item 15, one may conclude to

( a BB1 a ) + ( a BB2 a ) = ( a + a BB1 + BB2 a + a )       (3.3)

or conclude to

( a BB a ) + ( a BB a ) = ( a + a BB + BB a + a )       (3.4)

Underlining here means anti-, a = quarks, a = antiquarks; BB1 = Big Bang 1, BB2 = Big Bang 2; BB = Big Bang with before and after the BB only forward time direction, BB = a kind of anti Big Bang with before and after the BB only backward time direction; a = quarks = the whole bunch of identical quarks in the fermion explosion, ditto for a = antiquarks.

(3.3) and (3.4) are considered to be the same, only the ordering is different.

An unknown short time after the BB the vacuum quarks recombine with the vacuum antiquarks into each others time border to form the vacuum particles of the three Higgs fields. The antiquarks, as observed by us, go from the future (where they are all enclosed in the vacuum particles) in backward time direction towards our BB. At the moment of recombination they decouple and form an antiquark cloud that further contracts to what is for them a BC, a Big Crunch.

The antiquarks in the cloud are supposed to be identical, the BC in its last stage is supposed to form a fermion implosion. The cloud of antiquarks must be drawn from the vacuum particles, all antiquarks made being identical in that last moment, I see no other possibility how they would become identical in their time evolvement (that is backward as observed by us).

Drawing is introduced in Observing Dark Galaxies in the column at the right at page 2 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. Discussion about drawing is not yet settled, see e.g. paragraph The time border and the gluon of color 1 at page 3 of QG.

Also is not worked out how the field of all possible velocities (that equals an expansion at every point of spacetime) is carried through the process of quark antiquark recombination. The moment of quark antiquark recombination is a rearrangement moment. A Bose condensate consists of bosons in the same state, and that's not an expansion where every particle of it has a different velocity. Can the field of all possible velocities, consisting of the superposition of an expansion at each possible place, be reordered to the field of all possible velocities, consisting of a superposition of fields of identical particles that have same velocity all over space?

So it is yet


how the recombination of the two fermion explosions yields the colored gluon pairs, the spin 0 photons and the spin 0 neutrinophotons of the three Higgs fields.


Two fermion explosions give rise to three Higgs fields

Since the Higgs field of the 3rd generation gives the highest masses, it must be the most energetic field of the three. It must be too that the moment of recombination of the identical quarks with the identical antiquarks is the moment of highest energy. Then first the 3rd Higgs field is formed. It should be that further expansion cooled the 3rd Higgs field until it doesn't have enough energy no more to sustain the 3rd generation particles and falls to the 2nd Higgs field made of spin 0 photons that are made of colorless quarks with electric charge.

But mind, there not really is a fermion explosion of the vacuum particles, there immediately is the field of all possible velocities in which there is no further evolution, isn't it? So there is no such thing as cooling down either in the vacuum particle field. All three Higgs fields must be there from the very first moment, the moment of recombination of the quarks with the antiquarks.

Let's regard Higgs field 3.

According to (2.8) and (2.10) in paragraph Building vacuum from gluons at page 2 of QG, the gluon pairs of the vacuum are the superposition

( i   -i ), ( j   -j ), ( k   -k ), ( 1   1 )

while the gluon pair superposition of the backward time evolving areas of vacuum is

( i   -i ), ( j   -j ), ( k   -k ), ( -1   -1 )

At several places in this website is concluded that areas of forward time evolving vacuum and areas of backward time evolving vacuum can spatially exist next to each other, separated by the time border.



Is condensation energy involved? Strong force condensation energy when the quarks recombine with the antiquarks? The quark and the antiquark approach until within their time borders and then they are the gluon. When at such small distances the strong force is virtually zero. So no, I don't think any condensation energy is involved. Besides, the forward version and the backward time evolving version should be symmetric, aren't they?



We now have the picture of the vacuum more or less ready. Let's return to the matter that expanded from the BB. No superpositions here, all particles are real. The expansion cannot be converted into a field of all possible velocities.

For the real matter the BB consists of we continue (1.4), The bunch of particles the BB consists of, very well might have been identical quarks only, and (1.6), The BB is driven by an identical-fermion explosion.

The CMB is generally accepted as the remnant of the BB and originated at 400,000 years after the BB. The nowadays temperature of the CMB has been measured to be the same in all directions, to about one part in 100,000. This gives rise to the so-called horizon problem. Is the precision of the identical-fermion explosion sufficient to explain the isotropy deviation of no more than one part in 100,000 and thus solve the horizon problem?


The velocity of the universe is determined then about 100 % everywhere. So the location of the universe must be indefinite, 100 percent undetermined, in accordance with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (2.1). Our matter is able to stand still with respect to the expanding frame, more or less embodied by the receding galaxies and especially the CMB.

In our universe as it is now, there is no preferred location where the BB occurred, all locations are equally valid       (5.1)

SR still holds. To start with, the model of the expanding universe might be that of Milne: a uniform, isotropic, homogeneous and constant expansion - the uttermost simple expansion there is - of an empty universe, wherein SR is taken into account. Added to the model of Milne are decelerations of the expansion due to gravity in the forward time evolving areas and, in this website only, accelerations of the expansion (as we observe them) in backward time evolving areas.

That the antimatter from the BB has gone backwards in time, starting at the moment of the BB, is a perfect explanation why there is no antimatter in our universe and where it has gone to       (5.2)

However, as described in the previous page of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE and in item 15 at page 1 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, there might be antimatter in our universe coming to us along the timeline from another BB in our far future. The amounts of matter we observe around us and antimatter (that we don't see, see item 12 at page 1 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE) then don't have to match. In this website there is a preference for the existence of these foreign antimatter and the foreign antimatter is regarded as the cause of the acceleration of the expansion of the universe. See also paragraph The beginning of the Universe - a previous attempt at the previous page of the storyline THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.

Paragraph The proton at page 4 of QCD chooses the strong force between quarks and gluons within 0.9 fm to be proportional to distance and zero at zero distance. So at the very first instant of the BB the strong nuclear force yielded no contribution *). Only the electromagnetic force can have worked at the very first instant. The reaction time of the electromagnetic force is at least 10^-20 sec. Only when the particles of the universe are at mutual distance of at least 0.9 fm the strong nuclear force comes into play to serve as an additional force.

force carrier reaction times

W = Weak force, P = Photon, the electromagnetic force, G = gluon, the strong force.

The lifetime of an unstable particle determines with nearly absolute certainty under which force it decays.

We take this as the reaction times of the forces.

*) I am not sure about this. It appears to me that as soon as the universe has some extend, the strong force from a certain quark would pass over the nearest neighbor quarks and reach for the quarks that are at 0.9 fm distance. The structure of the universe then resembles a bit that of the rings of a chainmail, that the medieval knights used to wear instead of a nowadays bulletproof vest.


The decoupling of matter and radiation at 3000 K, about 400,000 years after the BB, was the moment of birth of the CMB that then equals a black body radiation of 3000 K. Since then the matter has clumped into stars, galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The CMB temperature still is isotropic to about one part in 100,000. So the evolution has had no influence on the 2.7 K isotropy. So we may conclude that also the supposed dark antimatter galaxies would have had no influence on the 2.7 K isotropy.

The observed temperature of the CMB now is 2.7 K, more than 1000 times smaller than 3000 K. The accepted explanation for this is that the wavelengths of the CMB radiation are stretched in the course of time, they arrive stretching.

Here I would propose a simpler explanation. At 400,000 years ATB (After The Bang) our location (the location that will become us) received 3000 K radiation from the direct neighbourhood. That radiation has passed us by since. One billion years later we receive the CMB radiation from locations one billion lightyears away. Those locations recede from us and the light from those locations is severely red shifted to a much lower temperature than 3000 K. Another 12 or 13 billion years later - we are in present times now, 13.8 billion years ATB - all those radiations has passed us by and we are receiving now radiation from places about 13.8 billion ly away. Those places recede that much that the CMB has red shifted to the nowadays observed 2.7 K. It resembles a bit the reasoning in the solution of the paradox of Olbers at page 7 of the storyline THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.

The CMB that we observe is cooling down in the course of the billions of years       (6.1)

Which is the same conclusion as the accepted one.

Just another possibility for CMB-like radiation.

During acceleration the accelerated matter experiences the surrounding vacuum as having a temperature proportional to the acceleration (Davies-Unruh equation)       (6.2)

This is supposed to hold in forward matter areas as well as in backward antimatter areas.