Experiments on approaching masses

We have two blocks of same composition, that is same mass, same shape, same volume, same material. The mass of a block is that small it has negligible gravitational field. The two blocks are released simultaneous at same height above the Earth surface, their initial velocity zero with respect to the Earth surface.

1 distant
2 closer
3 very close
4 touching
5 merging

Since the blocks are identical, we expect the two blocks in 1 to undergo same acceleration. Suppose the block in 5, since it is twice as heavy as each of the blocks in 1, would fall with twice the acceleration. Then one expects an acceleration transition when going from 1 to 2, 3, 4 and finally 5.

E.g. 1) when the two touching blocks at 4 are merged to one block by a very tiny droplet of very strong glue, then the block suddenly undergoes twice as strong acceleration.

Or 2) when starting at 1, the blocks approach each other when going to 2, 3 and 4, and then the acceleration gradually increases to twice the original acceleration - and the drop of glue wouldn't have no effect at all on the acceleration.

Regard the 3 quarks in a proton. We know little about quark masses. The mass of a quark might be larger than the mass of the proton and then being reduced by the mass defect when the 3 quarks clump together. The mass of a quark might be smaller than 1/3 of the mass of the proton and then being enlarged by its high average speed in the proton and special relativity. The character of the so-called color confinement is unknown, therefore we cannot judge which argument holds, the larger quark mass or the smaller quark mass.
(When you calculate the mass of a nucleus by the number of protons times the mass of the proton plus the number of neutrons times the mass of the neutron, you always get too large a number. The difference between the calculated mass and the observed mass is called the mass defect.)

In the mechanism of gravitation as presented in page 3, 4 and 5 of the NEKG storyline, there is no natural source of such a thing as mass defect. Mass is proportional to the number of couplings per second the quarks execute, in this theory. Mass defect exists, the resulting nuclei (and eventual other particles like electrons and photons) in nuclear fission as well as fusion, have masses and kinetic energies that fit in with the existence of mass defect. So within the presented mechanism of gravitation from this site, 1) or 2) or something like that, must be acting in the color force reactions between the quarks in a proton. The number of reactions per second of a quark is affected by the presence of other quarks (or gluons).

See also Quark mass at page 5 of NET FORCES IN QCD.


We repeat the experiments with a droplet of liquid.

1   2   3   4   5

6   7   8

The first question is: is the droplet an object, like a block? If it isn't, what if we repeat the droplet experiment with gradually more viscous liquids, more and more indistinguishable from a solid? Sometimes they call glass a liquid, while glass in my opinion could perfectly serve as solid block materiall.

In the spirit of 1) then 1 up to 6 would all droplets have same acceleration, while in 7 and 8 the acceleration suddenly would diminish about a factor 2. Mind the resulting two droplets are not precisely the same.

In the spirit of 2) one expects a gradually decreasing of the acceleration of the droplet in the course of 1 up to 8. We don't mean the air to brake, this should be performed in vacuum.

The Newton gravitational law F = GMm / r and the Second law of Newton F = ma combine to

GMm / r = ma      or
a = GM / r
G = gravitational constant, M = mass of the Earth, m = mass of a block in 1, r = distance from the block to the center of the Earth, a = acceleration of the block

In the formula there is no m anymore, so the acceleration is not depending on m. According to the laws of Newton, all masses fall with same acceleration.

We never observe such sudden changes in the acceleration when objects are falling. Nor do we observe any dependence of falling acceleration on the mutual distance of small masses. So we conclude


Energy considerations play a role too.

s = at / 2, t = 2s / a
v = at, v = a t = a * 2s / a = 2as
Kinetic energy = mv / 2 = (m / 2) * 2as = mas

The kinetic energy of the block when it hits the ground, is proportional to acceleration a. Suppose when the acceleration of two separate blocks, or two separate droplets, is doubled when united, then the united block (or droplet) will have twice the kinetic energy when hitting the ground. See the pulley experiment at the right.

In this energy consideration we assumed the gravitational field to be uniform. We neglected the inverse square dependence of distance, and relativity, and quantum mechanics.

When the masses of the blocks become larger and larger, they develop significant gravitational field. Now there are 3 objects attracting each other, 2 blocks and the Earth. They attract each other to a common center of gravity and eventually start to orbit each other. When the blocks have different mass then you have a 3-body problem from which the exact solution is unknown.

When the masses of the blocks become smaller and smaller, you finally would end up at protons, neutrons and electrons. In fact our conclusion above was a little premature. By the experiments above we only indicated that all masses that are multiples of a certain small mass do fall with same acceleration. Well, there you are. You only have to show a proton, a neutron and an electron undergo equal acceleration in the gravitational field.

Well, except from mass defect results, of course.