Who did it?

When I started out this storyline, it seemed clear that the outflow of vacuum from dark matter must lead to expansion of space. Dark matter causes expansion of the universe - as observed from our point of view - but they, performing a likewise reasoning from their point of view, they blame us for it. So, who did it?

CERN has made anti hydrogen atoms, a negative charged antiproton surrounded by a positron. They lasted for 1000 seconds and have been excited in that time. - March 2012

As is concluded in item 14 of page 1 of this storyline, there are no forward and backward time superpositions in one and the same vacuum. In the anti-atoms there might be a tight fitting bubble of backward time vacuum around each of the constituting particles, when present here on the Earth. They certainly were not present 1000 seconds before their creation, allowing us not to perform the experiment. As observed by them, they were spontaneously created at the loose spots they went at the end (our end) of the 1000 seconds, to end (their end) their lifetimes all together in the anti atom creation machine. This sounds very unlikely. So CERN's antimatter atoms are forward time evolving in a normal way, as we observe it.

All gravitational
contraction seems to come to a halt

A large cloud of molecules starts to contract under the force of gravity, heats up, radiates the heat to the outside, and then continues contracting. If not for nuclear reactions starting, creating stars, this would just go on until the Schwarzschild radius was passed. Anyway, reality shows there are stars.

A large cloud of stars usually keep circling around each other, as in globular star clusters and spiral galaxies. Those star systems don't contract any further.

(By cleverly combining star orbit properties a star can be propelled out of a system of stars, but this is rare. If it happens, then the system of remaining stars contracts a tiny little bit further.)

In general, gravitation leads to contraction and generally a contraction comes to a halt. (See also the column at the right.)       (1)

Distribution of dark and bright matter

Classical view states expansion of the universe is counteracted by attracting gravity of all matter in it that might stop it and reverse to contraction. Or might slow down to a standstill after an infinite of time. Or keep on expanding for ever.       (10)

In this site forward time evolving matter (our kind of matter) is called bright matter. Then dark matter is backward time evolving antimatter. Their past is our future and vice versa.       (11)

Consider a number of bright galaxies and an equal number of dark galaxies. To meet more realistic conditions, we suppose the bright galaxies to be concentrated in nodes (point-like features), filaments (line segments) and planes. The filaments connect the nodes and span the planes. The planes together envelop voids.

The black galaxies are supposed to be concentrated likewise, with their nodes in the middle of our voids. The dark filaments, from black node to black node, cross the white planes.

Dark and bright galaxies

Consider two dumbbells of galaxies, one bright (depicted white, each dot a galaxy) and one dark (depicted black, each dot an antimatter galaxy), that happen to be of same mass and same volume and shape, same mass distribution. Their filaments are perpendicular to each other, but one above the other - the red dotted line that connects the centers of the dumbbell shapes structures is perpendicular to both filaments. Other filaments are present but are neglected.

Compare item 15 at page 1 of this storyline and page 6 of FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION.

The result should be forward vacuum in the bright filament, backward vacuum in the dark filament and somewhere between them is the time border. Our galaxies attract each other. So do theirs, but their attractional influence, when passing the time border, becomes a repulsive force to us when in our forward vacuum. According to paragraphs Dark and bright planets and stars of equal mass and (the end of) The gravitational field and the expansional field, both at previous page, the dumbbells exert no gravitational force on each other. If the universe in this way consists of rods-and-nodes in equal amounts bright and dark, then the universe tends to be static.       (12)

Some questions remain.

1) The dumbbells are no rigid structures. The masses of the dark parts and the bright parts are not precisely equal everywhere. Do the black and white dumbbells maintain shape or will they distort each other?

2) Star systems are observed colliding, but even then actual star collisions are rare. Consider a bright and a dark galaxy colliding. All stars of about equal but opposite mass would hardly notice each others passage. We might see only some annihilation effects, especially from matter-antimatter clouds colliding. The dark stars we don't see. When a matter and an antimatter star actually collide, then follows a matter-antimatter explosion. Is this true, would a dark and a bright galaxy of about equal mass go through each other without noticing?

We need a good simulation program.

The acceleration of the expansion of the universe

When I started out this storyline, it seemed clear that the outflow of vacuum from dark matter must lead to expansion of space. It was soon clear that this expansion was not the expansion caused by the BB (Big Bang). Then I thought that the outflow of vacuum from dark matter might cause the observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Nowadays the cause of this acceleration is called Dark Energy (in this website marked with capitals), but that's just a name. Nobody knows what it consists of.       (20)

I thought, all contraction of matter comes to a halt, see the first paragraph above. That is, the urge to contract (the gravitational forces) remain, of course, but the actual contraction performed by the matter that feel those gravities comes to a halt. At the other hand there is the expansion caused by dark matter that is not counteracted by a mechanism that halts. That is, later it turned out by using the laborious formulation of erasing velocities (see previous page) that at their side of the time border contractions (for them the expansion is a contraction) come to a halt just as it does for us. But as soon as the contracting influence, the time reversed gravitational field, has passed the time border and entered our areas, it remains as a real expansion, as is described at the previous page. So the expansion in our forward time evolving areas will remain for us as an observable effect.       (21)


So far the effects on matter with mass, baryonic matter as we call it. What about the light from the stars? Suppose there are antimatter galaxies of same abundance as our well-known matter galaxies and spread over space as described above in the second paragraph. Then their overall gravitational contraction has same magnitude as ours, albeit that their evolution in time is opposite to ours.

Consider light that is emitted by the surface of Sun. It has to work against the gravitational pull of the sun. Since it cannot loose velocity, it has to loose energy. The frequency of the light decreases. Light that departs the Sun red shifts. Then a mirror bounces the light back to the center of the Sun. That light is accelerated towards the sun now but since the velocity cannot increase, its energy will increase. The frequency increases. Light headed for the center of the Sun blue shifts. When arrived at the spot where it originally departed from, its energy must be unaltered, otherwise it would violate the law of conservation of energy. Only the impulse has reversed direction. See *) in the column at the right

When a ray of light passes along the Sun, its track is a curve in GR (General Relativity). I guess it is a hyperbola, when observed from a point that is standing still with respect to the Sun. The hyperbola has one axis of symmetry. Corresponding points at both sides of the symmetry axis must have same energy, due to the conservation of energy.

When approaching the Sun along the curve, the light must blue shift; when receding from the Sun thereafter the light red shifts again. So in passing a spherical gravitational field (from a starting point to a corresponding end point) a photon does not gain or loose energy. So in general

Light does not build up a net red shift nor a net blue shift when passing through gravitational fields       (22)

So also in the backward time evolving areas light that passes through gravitational fields will on the average not red shift or blue shift.

In passing subsequent dark and bright areas, the direction of light may be affected, but its energy will on the average remain the same       (23)

Mind, In passing subsequent dark and bright areas is in so far a loose formulation that the actual tresspassing of subsequent dark and bright areas, as observed by us, is as follows.

... < < < T1 > > > forward > > > T2 < < < backward < < < T3 > > > ...

Here T1, T2 and T3 are time borders, sets of mathematical points that separate forward time evolving areas from backward time evolving areas. > > > forward > > > is an entire area between T1 and T2 where time elapses forwards; < < < backward < < < is an entire backward time evolving area between T2 and T3.

So a light ray that passes from before T1 onto after T3 in fact traverses the following tracks: 1) from T1 towards the left in backward time direction; 2) from T1 to T2 in forward time direction; 3) from T3 to T2 in backward time direction; 4) from T3 towards the right in forward time direction. I investigate this in the storyline FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION       (24)

However, (23) seems not to hold for the mentioned dark gravitation that has entered our bright area. This causes a redshift on light passing in our bright areas that is not counteracted. Well, that is, the connected two tracks of that light through the neighboring next black area and the respectively previous black area will undergo a likewise deceleration as observed by us (they themselved regard it as an acceleration) that can be considered to cancel the mentioned aceleration in our areas, when those areas have comparable size.

So on cosmic scale there is no net redshift nor net blueshift on passing light. The light is not accelerated like the matter is.       (25)


Unless there is a little excess of antimatter in the universe, see the next page or item 15 at page 1 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. Then there is a net amount of Higgs marble emission in the universe not counteracted by Higgs marble absorption. There is created more space than space disappears in the act of the gravities. Then the redshifting effect of the dark gravitation that has entered our areas is larger than the corresponding blueshifting effect (as we observe it) from our gravitation that has entered their black (as we observe it) areas on passing light.       (26)


Event A := Event B means Event A becomes Event B by means of time reversal, see page 1 of THE DIRECTION OF TIME (that is also the first page of this storyline).

Red shift of light := blue shift of that light

Blue shift of light := red shift of that light



Let's pick up arguments that ended with (21). Does our gravitation excert a contraction in the backward time evolving areas, at the other side of the time border, as gravitation does in our areas? It would be a repelling gravity as observed by them. The answer is yes, it would, just as their gravitation impinges an expanding force on our matter. But we don't see that, we don't see the backward time antimatter evolve.       (28)

When our areas undergo an expansion (due to their gravity entering our regions) and their areas undergo a contraction (due to our gravity entering their regions), doesn't then our area grow while their area shrinks? No, it doesn't, as is stated at (26) at page 2 of this storyline.       (29)

Doesn't matter when passing the time border subsequently undergo a expansion (in our areas) and a contraction (in their areas) and doesn't these cancel each other out? Answer: this doesn't occur. Our baryonic matter, except for e.g. the typical velocities of 600 km/sec for galaxies, stands still relative to the expanding frame. Matter, our baryonic matter, seldom trespasses the time border.


As end conclusions we state:

The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, as far as can be observed from the baryonic matter of the universe, is caused by the gravitational field originating in dark galaxy clusters that subsequently entered our forward time evolving areas       (30)

The proof for the acceleration of the expansion of the universe is mainly given by the observed brightness of type 1a supernovae. Type 1a supernovae are baryonic matter. But their brightness is given by their light reaching us.

The light that subsequently is passing dark and bright areas is on large scale average not affected by redshifts or blueshift caused by the gravitational field of those dark and bright areas       (31)

So the brightness of the type 1a supernovae is on the average not spoiled by gravitational redshifts or blueshifts.

I hope I may state that the amounts of converging and diverging of the light of those supernova's (gravitational lensing), when passing the forward and backward time areas, do cancel each other out. If not that would affect the observed brightness of the 1a supernovae.


Some final remarks.

1) The expansion of the universe is by observation of the same order of magnitude as the gravitational attraction of all matter in it. Observation shows they nearly cancel each other out, leading to = 1. See (10) above.

In my theory this is allowed but there is no reason why it should be so. As (12) says, when bright and dark matter are evenly abundant on cosmic scale, and are divided over space likewise, then the universe tends to be static. A Big Bang would not be counteracted by gravitation. In my theory there is not immediately a connection between the strength of the BB, the rate of expansion, and the density of bright matter in it. Is it a coincidence that these properties more or less match? Is this


or is it just a matter of energy conservation and impulse conservation?       (32)

2) When there is an excess of antimatter over matter, then a net expansion is expected, instead of a static universe. This is another tendency causing acceleration of the expansion of the universe.


Dark matter and inflation: black and white glueballs

In the outer rims of the galaxies the stars move too fast to be kept inside. A gravitating dark halo was supposed there, keeping those stars within.

Recently is suggested that when galaxies formed, the central black hole might have ejected jets of some kind of heavy particles, in both directions perpendicular to the galaxy disc. When the particles have huge mass and had not too huge initial velocity, the jet particles are expected to fall back to the disc these days. The gravitational effects of the opposite jets cancel out at the galaxy center, but at the galaxy rims a net force towards the center remains.

In galaxy clusters the individual galaxies move too fast too. Dark matter is supposed to be present in the cluster to keep the cluster together.

There is supposed to be about six times more dark matter than radiating matter, all in all. Seven parts, six of them are dark.

5 * 10^9 years ago dark energy's push was equal to dark matter's pull. At that moment the universe was expanding and from then on the universe was bound to an accelerated expansion.

In this site BLACK AND WHITE GLUEBALLS are a concept from colors as quaternions, extensively treated in the QQD storyline. And see also Fig 3.9 and subsequent explanation in paragraph Other colorshifts and mesons at page 3 of the storyline QCD. (QQD is meant as the quaternion successor of QCD.)

Black and white glueballs might have been created in large numbers when density is high and energy is abundant, at the beginning of the universe and at black holes. Black glueballs have mass and white glueballs move at lightspeed. Once created, the white and black glueball seems stable. And when temperature dropped and matter became sparse they had little way to dissolve.

We can expect white glueballs or black glueballs to form glu2ons (see GluNons at page 7 of the QCD storyline). This would be common when matter is dense and energy is abundant. The formed white pairs will be vacuum pairs and will be absorbed by the vacuum, enlarging it by their volume. It would cause then a kind of inflation in our forward time part of the universe, an uncontrolled growth of the vacuum, as long as matter density and energy is sufficient. Below that threshold the forming of white or black gluon pairs would stop automatically.

The black pairs will be absorbed by the backward time evolving vacuum when they happen to cross it, causing it to shrink as observed by us. In the beginning of the universe - their end of the universe - the backward vacuum is observed by us as undergoing a time reversed inflation.

The black-and-white pairs do not appear in Four quarks in the shell.

Is the black glueball a candidate for Dark Matter? Backward time evolving dark antimatter is a candidate for Dark Energy, as is described in previous page. Is the white glueball pair a candidate for the INFLATION (Alan Guth and Paul Steinhardt) at the beginning of the universe? If so, because of the inflation, the backward time evolving parts of the universe might be further away from us than originally is thought.

What exactly happens is yet under consideration. I tried to treat the emission and absorption of white gluon pairs in Vacuum stability at page 5 of QG, Quaternion Gravitation.

These parts are still


The beginning of the Universe

- a previous attempt -

When the primordial universe consisted of a homogeneous mix of matter and antimatter in roughly equal amounts, then the matter seems not to have influenced the antimatter by gravitational force at the beginning of the universe, since equal mass and antimass exert no gravitational force on each other, see Dark and bright planets and stars of equal mass at the previous page. Matter parts alone will tend to contract under gravitation, antimatter parts likewise ditto as observed from their point of view, and after time the contractions will come to a halt.

However, in this website matter goes forward in time and antimatter goes backward in time. Therefore at the BB indeed is created as much matter as antimatter, but the matter goes forward in time, while the antimatter goes backward in time, starting from the BB. See also item 15 at page 1 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. Therefore this paragraph is considered to be a previous attempt. Instead an identical-fermion explosion now is thought to drive the BB, see next page.
February 2024

In matter entropy increases. In antimatter the entropy decreases, as observed from our point of view. Antimatter processes in backward vacuum will induce anti-entropic behavior in the matter processes it has contact with, and vice versa. At the beginning of the universe, when viewed over the several forward and backward areas, time will tend to elapse backward and forward in equal amounts, resulting in no net elapse of time. As far as gravity is concerned the beginning of the universe might have been big, but certainly not a bang.

But gravitation is not the only force. When matter and antimatter come together that dense as is assumed at the beginning of the universe, the particles and antiparticles will annihilate each other. The entire mass in the universe well mixed with the entire anti-mass in the universe will explode as one single gigantic nuclear bomb. Yes, that gives a bang. It explains why the beginning of the universe was hot. The expansion of the universe might be sufficiently explained then. But the horizon problem is no longer solved. And the accelerated expansion is not explained.

Unless there is a little excess of antimatter in the universe, see item 15 at page 1 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. Then there is a net amount of Higgs marble emission in the universe not counteracted by Higgs marble absorption. In spite of phenomena like rearranging of vacuum marbles and erasing of velocity, as observed by us there is created more space than space disappears in the act of the gravities. The antimatter galaxy surplus causes an extra recession added to the already present expansion of the Big Bang.

In precisely the same way as we did in page 4 of NEWTON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION also the series of recessions of antigravity are indistinguishable from a velocity. One should realize the recessions are just ordinary gravitation in their own frame of reference. In gravitation is concluded the acquired velocity (take in mind a particle that has this velocity) is maintained and so we do here too. The acquired velocity then can be put in a box. The next pulse of Higgs marble emissions causes another recession, that adds a velocity to the box (that already has a velocity inside) that is maintained, and so on. This is an acceleration of the content of the box.

If we see the universe to expand - an ordinary constant expansion, mainly electromagnetically driven from the Big Bang - then they observe the same universe as shrinking. Added to this we see an excess of vacuum particle creation, an accelerated enlarging of space between them and us, caused by the backward gravity of the excess of antimatter. They see an excess of vacuum particle disappearance added to their shrinking, an accelerated reduction of space due to the gravitational fields of their excess of matter (as they observe it) over antimatter. We see an accelerated expanding universe, they see an accelerated shrinking space.

When forward and backward galaxies would repel each other

- Another previous attempt -

For gravitation I considered the law that matter attract each other, antimatter attract each other, but matter and antimatter repel each other. (Let's call it a-r-a, from attracting-repelling-attracting). Is then an asymmetry in time building up?

Assume a collection of 2n galaxies, n bright, n dark, in a well-mixed distribution (not the node-filament structure we described above). We know the n bright galaxies all attract each other, when embedded in forward vacuum alone. The n dark galaxies also show attracting behavior to each other: in their own frame they certainly do and in the film of events played backward, as we observe them, the dark galaxies still will orbit each other.

When forward and backward galaxies would repel each other then a reasoning similar to page 1 of the storyline ELECTRIC NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER yields a surplus of n repulsions between the galaxies, making the universe to expand. And this is no longer time symmetric. Imagine in the well-mixed 2n galaxy distribution initially all galaxies are standing still relative to each other. Then the net repulsion gives the first pulse to expand. What is an expansion to us, will be a contraction to them. Well, what is a transition from standstill to movement (an acceleration) is a transition from movement to standstill for them. Which embodies a repulsion. So no, there is no direct time asymmetry apparent.

Or is it? The a-r-a law itself is invariant under time reversal, see item 1) at page 1 of storyline FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION. But when the 2n galaxies start from standstill with respect to each other, then the first moment thereafter the net repulsion has to be set in motion. But in what time direction? It must be that in the forward time evolving parts of the universe (that's us) the repulsion sets in motion, while we see in the backward evolving parts a shrinkage has set in motion. While they consider it precisely the same but the other way around. They are the ones expanding while they see us contracting.

This is demanding to our imagination. In this site we don't go further on this way. As argued, a dark and a bright galaxy do not repel each other by gravitation. One should stop thinking in terms of attraction and repulsion. Dark galaxies cause space to grow, bright galaxies cause space to shrink. In symmetric mass distributions this tends to simulate neutrality - no force working.

And IF one structure tends to dominate by larger mass then it forces the other structure to obey to a larger extend the mechanics of the dominant one (see paragraph Dark and bright planets and stars of equal mass at previous page). A net attraction is expected between the dark and bright systems, in principle leading to a contraction of the whole (but much weaker than with forward dynamics alone, working on the same mass distribution of only masses, no antimatter). That is, the dominant one will observe the contraction, the other will observe it as an expansion. But mind, all contraction will come to a halt.

In a sense it is a pity matter and antimatter do not repel each other by gravity. If they would, then the dark galaxy cluster structures and bright galaxy structures would be kept apart firmly and I have serious doubts whether ever a representative of the human race will make it that far. But it would destroy the picture of the photon and the gluon consisting of a matter particle and an antimatter particle so close together they are within each others time borders and so become massless.

No, we don't go any further on that way.

Next page treats some properties of accelerated expanding space in a more traditional way, without further discussion on time-reversed dark antimatter.