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QUATERNION GRAVITATION Back to the Contents
 

Miscellaneous


Twelve unused gluons
In QCD there are 6 colors: red, green, blue, cyan, magenta and yellow. The gluon in QCD has an upper and a lower color, so there are 6 x 6 = 36 possible gluons. Nine of them work between quarks. Another 9 between the antiquarks. Still 6 more between the opposite colors in mesons. That's it. This leaves 36 - 9 - 9 - 6 = 12 unused gluons. In what I called the colorshift interpretation I thought to build the vacuum from them, thought to fill in the vacuum marbles with them. Expressed in colors these gluons are:

+1/6 gl       and -1/6 gl   

+1/6 gl means: gluon of colorshift +1/6; -1/6 gl means: gluon of colorshift -1/6, see SUMMARY 1, page 0 in the storyline NET FORCES IN QCD.        (16)

These gluons in fact are used in Application 4, page 7 in the QQD storyline.

Colorshift is an abandoned concept now. We now use quaternion units instead of colors.


Can gluons ever annihilate each other to yield a gamma ray?
Can a glueball convert into photons? The gluon couples to color (and not to electric charges) at the pace of 10^23 reactions per second. While the photon only couples to electric charges (and not to color) at a pace of 10^20 reactions per second at maximum. So photons and glueballs are very different particles, although their quantum numbers are the same.

The neutral pion (quark composition u u, where u means anti-u) decays to 2 gamma photons within 0.84 * 10^-16 seconds, the neutral eta particle (quark composition d d) decays into 2 photons within 5.5 * 10^-19 sec. So two quarks can convert to a gamma ray. The lifetimes indicate electromagnetic decay, possible because of the electric charges in the quarks. But the gluons have no electric charge. They can't decay electromagnetically.
A gluon and its opposite don't annihilate. Their result is given by their quaternion multiplication. E.g. i times -i yields 1, a colorless gluon, a glueball, but anyhow just another gluon.
Two gamma rays can never yield 1, a colorless gluon. Well, that is the assumption. So no, two gluons cannot decay into two gamma rays.


Building vacuum directly from spin 0 gluons
The model that a gluon consists of two quarks massless coinciding leads to the possibility of spin 0 gluons. In the storyline NET FORCES IN QCD, page 5, paragraph Meson exchange ends with: “The two quarks of a massless pair force each other to follow same path, because when they separate they have to gain mass, and for that the energy is not available. So there is no need for spin alignment to make the pair cohere. This is similar to page 4 of NET FORCE IN QED. The quarks naturally appear with opposite spin, with a sum of zero spin.” Zero spin then is a spin 0 gluon.

In the paragraphs The Higgs field 1, 2 and 3 we constructed the vacuum of spin 1 gluon pairs. The spins align to a spin 2 particle, spin 2 or spin -2. In matter one of the two gluon spins might be swapped, yielding a spin 0 particle that we dubbed the Higgs boson. But now it is clear we don't need spin 1 gluon pairs to obtain a spin 0 composite - we can use spin 0 gluons directly to construct the vacuum from. We don't need spin alignment for coherence of a pair of gluons, if there are gluon pairs they may have opposite spins (however, there is no meaning to opposite spin 0 particles: -0 = 0).

One is tempted, when the gluons making up the vacuum are white, to suggest pairs are not needed anymore to construct the vacuum. Just sole white spin 0 gluons making up the Higgs field and the gravitational field for the hadrons. The Higgs field, the gravitational field and the vacuum, that is the same thing then.
In paragraph Filling in the vacuum marbles at page 2 of this storyline, between (2.1) and (2.2), and also at (5.4) in page 5 of QQD is conjectured the three dimensional vacuum of one “now” moment coheres by color, the vacuum marbles of space glue by color. While the subsequent moments in time glue by white; in fact they are not bound then, they don't glue. (But they do make a choice out of the Sea of Possibilities, determining and defining the relative distance of subsequent moments in time.) So in quaternions, to maintain difference between space and time, we take the vacuum not only to consist of white gluons in pairs as vacuum marbles, but also colored gluons in pairs.

When done, then there is no way anymore to yield a spin 2 particle, as the graviton is supposed to be. But in the picture of gravitation as sketched in NEKG page 3, 4 and 5, maybe such a graviton isn't needed anymore. I cannot judge this.

This means the vacuum of this page, made of spin 1 gluon pairs, might not exist. Or is some kind of “higher state vacuum”.


Glu2on ( -1   -1 ) reacting with baryons and mesons
The glu2on ( -1   -1 ), normal part of backward time evolving vacuum, is massive and is forbidden as vacuum particle in our vacuum. But that doesn't mean it cannot exist here.

A proton (take e.g. a proton) reacting with ( -1   -1 ) is F * -1 * -1 = F. One of the quarks of the proton is reversed time by the first -1 (the other 2 are not), changing its color into its anticolor. Subsequently the other -1 changes it back again. What if the second -1 is absorbed by one of the two other quarks? In QCD this is not permitted, because leaving behind a colored end state of one quark with color and two quarks with anticolor. In QQD this is permitted since the product end state of the colors of the 3 quarks still yields 1, a white end state, see the QQD storyline page 3, (3.15) in paragraph Multiplication order and page 7 Application 4.

The first -1 may be at proper place already (at about 1 proton diameter, not more, not less) , but the second -1 travels over the grid that consists of between 10^20 ŕ 10^21 vacuum particles per meter, see Radius of the Higgs boson until it is at proper position to react with the other quark. The vacuum does not absorb the lone massive black glueball. See also NET FORCES IN QCD, page 3, paragraph “Other colorshifts and mesons” Fig. 3.9 where is argued the black glueball is a candidate for dark matter.

When both -1 are virtual, then the range plays a role. Because massive, -1 only has a short range. Are vacuum particles virtual? No, I don't think so. The emergence of a vacuum particle goes together with a real small contraction of the vacuum and in this way it had payed for its existence. So no range arguments for vacuum particles.

Another matter is that every 1 is superposed by glu3ons ( 1   1   1 ) and ( 1   -1   -1 ) and all the other possibilities that yield 1, see (3.22) at Three gluons applied together, page 3 of QQD. Yet to work out.

Anyway, this is the way ( -1   -1 ) gluon pairs can come to existence. When 3 vacuum gluons, taken out of 3 distinct vacuum pairs ( i   -i ), ( j   -j ) and ( k   -k ), merge according to i * j * k then the result is a -1 black glueball. (Or white glueball when according to k * j * i). For a vacuum particle ( -1   -1 ) to emerge 6 vacuum particles have to merge in a particular way, the just mentioned i, j and k according to i * j * k, plus the remnant -i * -j * -k according to -k * -j * -i. Not impossible but unlikely.

A meson reacting with ( -1   -1 ). One of the quarks can absorb the first -1 and subsequently the second -1. Can the other quark absorb the second -1? The quark becomes the antiquark while the antiquark becomes the quark, as far as the colors are concerned. The electric charges of course don't interchange. But no one will ever come to see the e.g. +2/3 electric charge combined with an anticolor.


Interaction between the hadronic Higgs field and the leptonic Higgs field
Is there interaction between the leptonic and gluonic Higgs fields? Both fields are fields of all possible velocities, see previous page.
Gluons don't couple to photons. So no, there is no direct interaction between the fields.

But one can imagine of a tiny contraction of the hadronic gluon Higgs field, because of the hole of a disappeared gluon pair, is accompanied by a tiny expansion of the leptonic Higgs field, because of the appearance of a photon. Then energy is conserved. And there is no conservation law of gluons nor of photons. Yet to work out.

For the vacuum to be stable, one has to assume vacuum gluon pair to vacuum photon reaction to be as abundant as vacuum photon to vacuum gluon pairs.


Some picturing
The picture sketched in The proton at page 5 of NET FORCES IN QCD tempts to design a dynamic vacuum.

The gluons of the vacuum are pushed to each other to a certain distance that happens to be 10^-20 ŕ -21 m. At larger distance they would feel too much force and attract each other. Smaller they feel not enough force and pass each other by.
Well, the gluon pair is massless and moves at lightspeed, so the two gluons in the pair are “frozen in time”, according to SR. And all the gluon pairs of the vacuum together are “frozen in the Bose condensate”.
Dynamics and being-frozen don't really go together, don't they?

One can regard the vacuum of (2.8) in paragraph Building vacuum from gluons at page 2 of this storyline as a superposition of an ( i   -i ) vacuum, a ( j   -j ) vacuum, a ( k   -k ) vacuum and a ( 1   1 ) vacuum. Then the superposed fields don't see each other, they don't interact.

When the fields are not superposing and are not frozen whatsoever, then in the vacuum cube chess board picture the ( i   -i ) vacuum can be pictured as a Na Cl grid, the i's instead of the Na and the -i instead of the Cl. Unlike the Na Cl grid the i and -i spots have equal volumes. Likewise the ( j   -j ) and ( k   -k ) grids. Then there are time borders between the vacuum particles. These time borders are flat planes forming a cubic grid with alternating an i or -i in the center of each cube. The cubes are alternating forward and backward evolving in time. Except for the ( 1   1 ) grid that is entirely forward time evolving and without any time border. It's the only one.


Building vacuum from photons: the leptonic vacuum
I proposed the photon as a composite of an electron and a positron, massless coinciding within their time borders, see page 4 of NET FORCE IN QED. Electrons and positrons are guided by Pauli matrices too. When multiplied they yield a quaternion unit, see page 9 of QQD. But quaternion units are designed as colors in this site. There is no color in the photon. So how to address this? It can be spin 0 photons I thought to build the vacuum from, but still their composing e+ and e- Pauli matrices will yield a quaternion unit, a color.


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The shade







































EXPERIMENT TO MEASURE THE GRAVITATIONAL PULL ON ELECTRONS

Use a sphere of e.g. 1 meter diameter, completely closed and made vacuum. Attached to the inner wall there is a kind of needle that at its point in the center of the sphere, releases electrons into the vacuum. The electrons drift through the sphere until they hit the wall, which is entirely covered by small patches of graphene, wired to the outside. The electrons absorbed by the wall, constitute a current that is led through the wire and measured.

Shield the whole sphere from outside electric and magnetic fields e.g. by covering the outside by earthed graphene.

If electrons have weight, there should be a slight excess of hits in the direction of gravity and a small deficit of hits in the opposite direction. Now charge the right patches as such the excesses and deficits disappear. From the applied charge one can calculate the pull of gravity on electrons.

Vary the orientation of the sphere and its place on earth and take one with you in orbit.



THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4  5
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER  1  2  3  4
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS ON MASSES  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE  1  2  3  4  5
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3
OTHER REMARKS ON BIOLOGY  1  2  3