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DIMENSIONS Back to the Contents

  Missing vacuums, missing dimensions

  updated November 2020

Consider the EPR experiment at page 1 of the storyline EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION:

p1 <---------------- source ------------------> p2

Photons p1 and p2 are correlated. If the spin of photon p1 is up then the spin of photon p2 is down - this is world 1. If photon p1 is down then photon p2 is up; this makes up world 2. In our world, in our vacuum, worlds 1 and 2 superpose. In our world we experience the superposition (explanation see below). In world 1 as well as in world 2 the surrounding world around the experiment (the experiment is photon source plus p1 plus p2) is presumed to sustain the experiment, but that's all we know about it. (I mean, we think it's us. But is't not only us.)


What is the superposition?
In this site the superposition is taken as real worlds that exist at the same place and the same time, right through each other, without seeing each other, not even with one single photon, real nor virtual. And that includes the vacuum, the superposed worlds each bring along their own vacuum (see below).
An infinite number of superposing vacuums is not new, they are a necessary ingredient in the field of all possible velocities, a concept that is needed more than once in TONE, my Theory Of Nearly Everything. (TONE is accessible from the upper part of the Contents. And nr 9 in the Additions below each sufficiently updated page. The Contents is accessible by clicking the black dot that always is above and below each page.) To be sure, each of the superposed vacuums (two in this case) consists of its own field of all possible velocities. This is no problem: the fields are Lorentz invariant, one can add one on top of the other and the resulting field will not show a change.

A starting-point used all over this site is that there is no space behind the space. When two superposed states, and thus their vacuums, do not see each other, then - in my opinion - their mutual distance and orientation become undefined. The background to decide their mutual distance and orientation is missing. Is this the case here?

We do not see one of the two vacuums yet, we haven't observed yet. So at first sight one would say yes, distance and orientation are undefined. However, our vacuum experiences the superposed states as if they are neatly placed one on top of the other. As if they are present at the same time and occupying the same space without seeing each other. It is our experiencing of the superposed states that keeps them together. How we do this, this experiencing, is a mystery.


What is experience?
Let's explain what I mean by “experience”. Compare the famous two-slit experiment in which, time after time, a single photon goes through both slits simultaneously, causing an interference pattern on the screen behind the slits. The interference pattern is the observed result of the “experience” that one photon goes through one slit (call it world 1') while simultaneous the second photon goes through the other slit (world 2'). You cannot say you observed those photons. The interference pattern is there because you did not observe them. But the system, the vacuum, is somehow aware of them, simultaneously present there. That's what I call “experience”. A kind of observation without observation.


No space to cross and no time to pass
The two slit experiment has the screen to establish the experience of the superposition. But there are no observations establishing the superposition of world 1 and world 2, with our opposite spin photons. And when the spin of one of the photons is measured, establishing the spin of the other photon to be opposite, there is no screen or whatever to establish there ever has been a superposition.

So, starting from the moment the photon source emitted the photons, can both pairs (both worlds) have any location and any orientation in our vacuum? Only one of them is summoned in position when measured, while the other one, never observed and leaving no trace, can have had any location and orientation from the moment the photon source released it.
But no, not really. The photon source has mass. At every coupling of the constituting particles of the photon source is absorbed mass from the Higgs field. According to my theory of gravitation (see especially page 3 of the storyline NEWTON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION), a tiny parcel of vacuum is absorbed along with the mass absorption and subsequently the resulting hole is filled in by the surrounding parcels of the vacuum. This is the act of gravity and so every coupling in the photon source (and it must have to maintain its coherence) betrays the location and orientation of the coupling particles in the photon source. Although for us not observable, the result is that the photon source's wavefunction collapses every single moment by means of this act of gravity. So the location and orientation of the photon source can be inferred from that of the photon source. As a consequence the photon's place and direction of emission are determined too, despite the lacking of observation or experiencing and that there is no space behind the space to measure location or orientation of the photon's worlds 1 and 2.

Superposed worlds do not spatially cohere, maybe except at the moment of splitting or merging. They don't cohere with each other and so don't cohere with our world. However, if present, the experiencing of the superposition seems to mean that some influence does keep the superposed states neatly one on top of the other. Without experience or observation the superposed worlds are not spatially positioned relative to each other. No photon is going from one superposed world to the other - neither real nor virtual - and no gravitational influence from one world will ever reach the other: the vacuum to guide them through is missing.
Can location have any value then? Normally, when a property can have all possible values, renormalization prescripts that one has to sum (the wavefunctions of) all possible worlds, to integrate them over all of spacetime. But there is no space behind the space. Even its dimensionality cannot be estimated. So there is no space to integrate over.
In physical sense superposed worlds have no spatial distance to each other, there is no spacetime interval between them. This fits in with the assumption in quantum mechanics that superposed possibilities are present instantaneous in the right orientation everywhere they are prompted by the wavefunction. They have no space to cross and no time to pass to reach their destiny.

What if one tries to consider that the superposed possibilities do NOT bring their own vacuum along? Each of the superposed states in the EPR experiment consists then of the two opposite spin photons alone. Only the vacuum sees them. Contra this argument is:
1) If the vacuum sees, then there is the possibility that some of the superposed states do interact. Compare page 3 of QG, in Higgs Mechanism 2, the paragraph just above (3.26). This certainly is not what is meant by the principle of superposition.
2) Renormalization uses the entire vacuum, not only the now-moment but the entire vacuum from all moments in the past and the future too. The superposed states differ and their renormalization might differ too. So how to perform the renormalization then?
So we conclude each of the superposed possibilities brings along their own vacuum.


Previous attempts
A thought experiment. For convenience, suppose the actual photon source has the dimensions of a dot, a single point. One can draw an arbitrary straight line through the point of the photon source and just say that in world 1 the photons p1 and p2 lie on that line. In world 1 the photon source has a different orientation then. That world doesn’t see world 2. So one can draw another arbitrary line through the point of the photon source and say that in world 2 p1 and p2 lie on that second line. The outside world – our vacuum - cannot yet distinguish between the states “p1 up, p2 down” and “p2 up, p1 down” and experiences the superposition of both possibilities.
In our world, in our vacuum, the superposition demands the photon source of both worlds 1 and 2 to coincide and to have same orientation in space. But the worlds 1 and 2 themselves are not yet observed and do not see each other. So I suppose they can have any place and orientation relative to each other. So if the two arbitrary lines do intersect at the place and time of photon emission (assume they don’t accidentally coincide), then the plane the two lines span does not consist of vacuum. The plane has mathematical meaning but is physically meaningless. There is no space behind the space.

Another previous approach to the superposition is suggested at
page 7 of my storyline NEWTON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION. This effort is not pursued any further.


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Missing dimensions



THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4  5
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER  1  2  3  4
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS ON MASSES  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
NEWTON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE  1  2  3  4  5
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
MATH  1  2  3  4
EVOLUTION  1  2  3
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14