Suppose you are on the earth surface, constituting frame of reference A. High above you rockets speed by along different straight lines in different directions (not crossing) and all with constant speeds. They are frames of reference B, C, D, etc.

The storyline SR - Special Relativity - describes how one single moment of the 3-dim space, observed in rocket frame B, is regarded as being built up from 2-dimensional planes, *slices* I call them, perpendicular to the line of motion of rocket B. From my proposal about gravitation I conclude those slices consist of gluon pairs. In rocket frame B all slices glue together with color, all colors. Each slice glues with color to the two neighboring slices. But where in the rocket frame B all slices are simultaneous, belonging to one single rocket-B moment of time - as observed in the Earth frame precisely the same slices *belong to different moments of time*, Earth time that is. Therefore in the Earth frame A the slices must glue together with white gluons only - in fact being not glued together. Each slice doesn't glue to the slice one moment before and one moment thereafter.

This is the separation of subsequent moments in time. (5.1)

So vacuum particle gluons that are white in one frame have color when experienced (explained at page 2 of DIMENSIONS) in a frame that is speeding by. (We cannot say observed

since observation would disrupt the wavefunction of the gluon vacuum particle.) (5.2)

Apart from the gluons that make up space, this holds for the quarks in the baryons. Quarks that at a certain moment t are bound by color in one frame, because they neighbor at the same moment, are bound by white gluons only in another frame - in fact not bound, that is - because they are neighbors *at different moments in time*. But of course they're bound by color to nearby quarks in the new plane of same moment in time. The plane of white gluons rotates, when changing velocity, changing frame of reference. (5.3)

In (2.8) at page 2 of QUATERNION GRAVITATION, our forward time vacuum is proposed as a superposition of the four particle pairs ( i -i ), ( j -j ), ( k -k ), ( 1 1 ) in 1ijk-space. (5.4)

Let's apply a choice out of the superposition on a particle traversing the vacuum, e.g. a quark Q:

Q * ( i -i ) = Q * i * -i = Q * 1 = Q (5.5)

In the view developed so far, ( i -i ) is a *vacuum particle* composed of two gluons. Normally quark Q does not react with the vacuum ( i -i ), ( j -j ), ( k -k ), ( 1 1 ). In the act of being dragged by the sagging-in shells of space, a particle does not react with the vacuum (see page 3 of NEG). For the vacuum to remain a Bose condensate it should not react with anything.

But if the quark Q does react with the vacuum particle ( i -i ), in (5.5) resulting in only the quark Q, this means the particle ( i -i ) is gone; it is *absorbed* by the quark Q. This is the Higgs mechanism as proposed at the quaternion approach at page 3 of QG. Also I assume the vacuum is diminished by the volume of the absorbed vacuum particle, causing *gravitation*, as is described in NEG page 3. Although according new insights this is the Higgs field absorption of the third generation, quarks b and t, the tau particle and the tau neutrino, see page 5 of QG.

In (5.5) there is only one 1

. A function of this 1

is that it is one step forward in time. I mean this. You are in some state. There always is a number of indistinguishable possibilities, indistinguishable states, superposed with you, with your state. (The conversion between two indistinguishable states obeys all conservation laws.) The state you are in is just one out of the set of indistinguishable possibilities. A neutral reaction like the multiplication with 1 in (5.5), then is a typical moment at which a new possibility is chosen out of the set of indistinguishable possibilities. That can be the same choice, but often it will be one of the other possibilities. In the last case we say that a moment in time has evolved to the next moment in time. This is how the time axis coheres and how time is elapsing.

With every next moment in time there is involved one Higgs field absorption. Each Higgs field absorption leads to the next moment in time. (5.6)

Any particle only absorbs from that vacuum, that Higgs field, with respect to which it is standing still. Only then it absorbs the least amount of mass from the Higgs field. Or energy, according to E=mc. This is in the spirit of page 1 of NEG, where is suggested one *can* stand still with respect to the vacuum. Still there is no *preferred vacuum* since there is the superposition of all possible Higgs fields, see page 3 of NEG. For any speed in the field of all possible vecocities there is a Higgs field of that speed, relative to which you can stand still. (5.7)

Space, ordinary xyz-space, is isotropic. An orientation of a coordinate system in space is as good as any other orientation. (5.8)

Gibbs considered quaternions not to be *very* useful. He pointed out that in quaternions q = a + bi + cj + dk he always needed only the real part a OR the imaginary part bi + cj + dk, but never the full quaternion q = a + bi + cj + dk. In Gibbs' time Newtonian space and time were always neatly separated, so this quaternion behavior is precisely what is to be expected then. (5.9)

The gluons of the vacuum are in a superposition of all possible ways they can be stacked upon each other and of all possible orientations the gluon stackings can have. (E.g. as in a rectangular grid, or a grid layer-by-layer half a gluon diameter displaced, and so on.) (5.10)

# Two dimensional projection of four dimensional spacetime

Replace every k by i * j and replace every -k by j * i. Provide every *real number* by a factor -i * i or -j * j. In this way every formula can be rewritten as an operation on complex numbers a * i and b * j only (a and b are real numbers). There are no k-components and no real components anymore in the formula.

If xyzt spacetime equals 1ijk-colorspace, does this mean all of spacetime can be written as a projection on one single i-j complex plane? Without a real axis? That means: without time axis? Unambiguously and clear? In the projection every factor, every term has a lot of ways it originally could have been composed of k and 1. (1

means real

here)

Gerald Tros stipulates there is only one kind of electric charge, coming in a positive value and a negative value, and that there are 3 kinds of color charge, each of them coming in two opposite values called color and anticolor. When going from electromagnetism to the strong nuclear force it is not a step from 2 to 3 charges, but a jump from 1 charge to 3 charges.

I wonder, the jump from G to P (G is Gluon, P is Photon) is this a projection from 3 dimensions to 1 dimension? And when you add time, a step from 4 dimensions to 2 dimensions?

Nowadays physics says electric charge of fundamental particles comes in the observed values -1 (electron), 0 (foton, gluon, neutrino), +1 (positron) and in the conjectured/not-really-observed values -1/3 (d-quark), -2/3 (anti u quark),+1/3 (anti d quark), +2/3 (u quark).

In QQD *gluon color charge* comes in the quaternion values 1, i, j, k, -1, -i, -j, -k. Mark these are 8 values and 2 of them are colorless (1 and -1), see the gluon table, just as the gluons in the accepted QCD representation.

## An earlier effort to connect quaternions to qcd

We continue the view of gluons as complex numbers of length one, described at paragraph Do large numbers of N count?

at page 1 of COLORSHIFT QCD. [ Not yet available anymore ] Gluons are rotations? So it will be. Let's start rotating 1 by the 3 white gluons , and . 1/i = -i, 1/j = -j, 1/k = -k. I hope next line is sound:

= i * 1 * -i = 1 = j * 1 * -j = 1 = k * 1 * -k = 1 1 = colorless white.

is the gluon that changes cyan into magenta, that is -i into -j. We rotate -i into -j, we want to find a quaternion q such that q * -i * 1/q = -j. When q is the gluon that rotates -i to -j, then 1/q is the gluon that rotates back, -j to -i.

= q | q * -i * 1/q = -j | = 1/q | 1/q * -j * q = -i |

= r | r * -j * 1/r = -k | = 1/r | 1/r * -k * r = -j |

= s | s * -k * 1/s = -i | = 1/s | 1/s * -i * s = -k |

When we solve q, r and s, we have the gluons working between , and

Someone should investigate the five 3-dimensional platonic bodies with all corner points at distance 1 from the central point, the Origin, in 1ijk 4-dimensional space. Look if there is something special about the quaternion numbers that rotate those corner points onto each other.

An intuitive idea of mine is baryons and leptons are *indistinguishable solutions* for existence, solutions that have nothing common in their base. The baryons are from one universe and the leptons are popping in from another universe

, and superstrings might be still another solution. All indistinguishable solutions superpose.