# End of Chapter 4

TILL  NDER    ONSTRUCTION

## Conclusions

4.1) The gravitational field is the Higgs field. Absorption from the Higgs field gives mass to particles at the same rate as it forms holes in the vacuum. Hence the proportionality of inert mass (resistance to velocity change) and ponderable mass (source of the gravitational field) as mentioned in point 3 at the end of page 3 of NEG.

4.6) Two colors of opposite sign don't react, provided the other properties of the two-color system are equal or opposite too. See Two gluons of opposite sign do not react at page 3 of QG.

4.6) Color e- = -1, the electron is the black quark and is an antiparticle.
Color e+ = +1, the positron is the white quark and is a particle.

4.7) Color e = +1, the electron neutrino is a white quark without electric charge and is a particle.
Color e = -1, the anti electron neutrino is a black quark without electric charge and is an antiparticle.

4.8) If the white and black quark with and without electric charge are the leptons, then the leptons are a kind of quarks and since quarks are already on the list of elementary particles, the leptons are wiped from the list.

5.1) If the gluon is made of a quark and an antiquark massless coinciding, then the gluon is wiped from the list of elementary particles.

5.2) If the W+ W- particle consists of two quarks within their time border, their masses partially reduced, then the W+ W- particle is wiped from the list of elementary particles.

5.3) One strong force cycle of time is about 0.5 * 10^-24 s (instead of 10^-23 s)

5.3) All known particles have found its place in the quaternion system. All possible places in the quaternion system are neatly filled in with a particle.

3.7) In backward time evolving vacuum the rules of multiplication are different. This is taken as the cause of all dark behavior like the so-called erasing of velocity in chapter 2, page 22, paragraph Time reversed gravitation. However an effort to calculate this has hardly been undertaken.

4.2) For the 3rd generation the gluonic Higgs mechanism provides the mass of the particles AND is the main mechanism of attraction between quarks. Direct gluon exchange might not exist for the 3rd generation.

4.5) Provided sufficient energy is available, two colors like i and j will always be given mass by the gluonic Higgs mechanism, yielding only 2-quark and 3-quark massive systems. Or yielding glu2ons made of 2 colors or 2 anticolors.

## Discussion

4.1) Are 1, i, j, k not only colors but dimensions as well? Are (4.7), (4.8) and (4.9) right, in paragraph The real-imaginary swap at page 4 of QQD?

4.2) Does the black glueball have mass? Or two black glueballs together? If so, then why the ( 1   1 ) vacuum particle stays massless?

4.3) When a color consists of two Pauli matrices in multiplication, then is changing multiplication order the same as changing multiplication rules from bright to dark, or from dark to bright? Is (4.3.20) right?

3.5) In the vacuum marble pairs ( 1   1 ) and ( -1   -1 ) the colors add to two: 1 + 1 = 2 and -1 -1 = -2. This is colorless (no i, j or k) but not valueless. What does this mean? Is this the arrow of time? Its length?

3.6) Page 42, paragraph two gluons of opposite sign do not react. Is this true? Opposite sign, but not necessary opposite color?

4.4) What is the mechanism of electric charge redistribution?

4.5) A white and a black electric charged quark (an electron and a positron) within their time borders form the photon, see in 2.3 Dark Dynamics. Can a white and a black quark without electric charge (neutrinos) within their time borders form a photon that has no electromagnetic fields? In paragraph Leptons as hadrons at page 4 of the storyline QUATERNION GRAVITATION, is concluded the spin 1 neutrinophoton as I called it, cannot exist. Paragraph The three generations at page 5 of QG concludes the spin 0 neutrinophoton forms another Higgs field, we have now 3 Higgs fields altogether.

4.6) Where is the chirality? Experimentally only the neutrino's and do exist.

4.4) For the 3rd generation only, sole color cannot be given mass by the gluonic Higgs mechanism. When sole color is massless, it will gain lightspeed. Or it decays into a lower generation.

In principle sole color can be given mass by the photonic or neutrinophotonic Higgs field. Still sole color (i, j, k, -i, -j, -k) doesn't occur.

4.1) If we say that a color +1 gluon passes the time border, then there are two ways for this expression to get meaning.

1. If they send what is to them a color +1 gluon toward the time border along CX (from C to X, see space time diagram below), then a color -1 gluon is drawn from our matter at A and goes to the same spacetime point X at the time border. The -1 gluon (what to us appears as a -1 gluon) is a +1 gluon as they observe it, enveloped by a tiny parcel of backward time evolving vacuum - that is, backward time evolving as we observe it. The drawn gluon itself judges itself to go from X to A, immersed in a tiny bubble of forward vacuum. Both line segments are in line with each other, together precisely forming one single line through the time border without a kink, just as if there was no time border there. The drawing at A is as such that at X wavefunction AX and the wavefunction CX suit perfectly to each other (same amplitude and phase).

The line of b's is the time border. Behind the S, X and U there is another b. Not to scale. Colors don't move over larger distances than a few fm, so normally that's the scale of a color scene. But these are colorless colors +1 and -1, therefore ABCD may contain just one vacuum particle as well as encircle a large group of galaxies.         (5.1.1)

2. If the time border itself at X radiates a color +1 gluon to them at D and a color -1 gluon (that is a +1 gluon from their world enveloped by a tiny parcel of backward time evolving vacuum) to us at B.

If at X the wavefunction of AX suits perfectly to the wavefunction of XB, then there is a third possibility, combining the previous two. The situation then can be regarded as a rebound of both particles from the time border: their +1 goes CXD while our -1 goes AXB. The source particle is their +1 going CX, while our AX -1, XB -1 and XD +1 all three are drawn into existence by the CX.

It seems we can maintain the option that a massless -1 as one gluon made of two Pauli matrices does exist, when the Pauli matrices multiply by dark multiplication rules. The -1 black glueball exists as a +1 from backward time evolving vacuum, enveloped by a time border.

(5.1.2)

I wrote an entire storyline, FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION, about the subject. Read page 4 up to page 7. Skip The Diamond at page 6, it's nonsense.

4.2) I haven't implemented yet dark multiplication rules to an acceptable result. How does the two formulas work out in paragraph Dark Mechanics at page 2 of QG?

5.1) Why then the W+ W- particle (80385 MeV) is heavier than the pi meson (140 MeV)?

5.2) Where is the Z-particle?

5.3) Is the gluNon concept capable of yielding the next generation? Glu3ons as another vacuum field, the 4th Higgs field?