NET FORCES IN QCD Back to the Contents

Color confinement


We measure an antibaryon by a meson scattering along it and then reaching us, or a photon emitted by it reaching us, or something the like. When a meson comes in close proximity of an antibaryon, there is a choice for the meson to be scattered in another direction and form a measurement, or to pass by without interaction. Then the world splits in as many worlds as there are choices. But the worlds we do not measure and thus do not enter, remain in superposition to us.

At the moment we receive the meson or photon we enter one of the superposed worlds of the antibaryon. To us the antibaryon at that moment is in the observed state.

Suppose we find ourselves back in a possibility where a meson scatters along the antibaryon while a disturbance consisting of a million steps is in progress and we enter it on a moment when only a few thousands steps have been completed. The chain of disturbances is in its own world an ordinary color reaction. So we may expect in our world the disturbance to be interrupted at the moment of measurement and will not be completed. Instead the chain of reactions is bent in the direction of a white colorstate.

As long as an outside observer doesn’t know what happened to the meson, a superposition remains intact of the possibility where the meson scatters along the antibaryon and the evolution of the disturbance is interrupted, and the possibility where the meson passes by without interacting and the typical disturbance of a million steps is completed. But of course decoherence effects soon will make the entire outside world to split too and branch along with the observer as soon as the first observational results of the meson becoming apparent to them.

You can’t skip possibilities, or say “We do some of them later, just a little bit later”. At the point in spacetime where the measurement has taken place we enter a specific possibility. There all possibilities set off at once.

In “Experiment 2 - the inverse square force law” we formulated a new law:

The strength of the interaction is inversely proportional to the remaining number of worlds in interference.

Let’s try to set up the same for the colorforce. We have a quark in a baryon in which the 3 quarks emit 1, 2 or 3 gluons. We focus on one quark that emits a gluon simultaneously in all possible directions. That is, the gluon-emission in any direction is in superposition with the gluon-emissions in all other directions. They don’t see each other. We found a baryon (or antibaryon) can simultaneously (or at least one directly after another) emit up to 3 gluons and then restore white again in (a lot) more than 258 ways - let’s say something between 100 and 1000. So not only all directions are in superposition, but for any direction the 100 to 1000 ways to restore white are in superposition too. Observed from the outside the virtual baryon exists then in a superposition of all its more than 258 sphere-surfaces with radius of 10^-15 meter. Then our gluon meets a second quark and becomes absorbed. That is, the gluon from the superposition that happens to have precise the right direction to end at our second quark, is absorbed. All the others are still going on, on their way as they are to their private color destination, shaping a spherical interference pattern with 1 hole in it.

Then our emitting quark emits a second gluon in all directions and amongst them is one in the direction of the receiving quark. Will that gluon hit our quark? In your world? The gluons sent out in all directions are worlds on their own. In one world the gluon is directed precisely to the second quark, hits it and becomes absorbed. In all the other worlds our second quark “sees” the spherical superposition of gluons pass by in all directions, with a hole in it in the direction of the second quark. If not hit by the gluon (because it passed by in an other direction) has the world of the second quark split in more worlds? Anyhow the gluons did. So at that moment it depends on whether one should measure the gluon or the second quark. In the first case you enter just one gluon world and it is most likely one out of the large group that missed our second quark. In the last case the second quark “seeing” the spherical superposition with a hole in it, hasn’t split further yet. But in both cases you most likely find yourself back in a world where the gluon-superposition-shield has missed the second quark and has passed by without interacting (because it had a hole in it in the direction of the second quark). And this process of missing gluon-shields-with-a-hole-in-it passing by will go on and on until one finally find oneself back in a world where the gluon, emitted by our first quark, is directed precisely enough at the place of the second quark to hit it and become absorbed. So far the description is pretty analogous to “Experiment 2 - the inverse square force law”.

At each point of the spherical surface of the superposition number of worlds in interference is something between 500 and (at least) 1000. Those are all the ways the 3 quarks of a baryon can emit 3 gluons and then restore white again. When applying the new law, this reduces the strength of the colorforce to practically zero. (large number of worlds in superposition, thus small force). Then in the course of the next 10 exp -23 seconds one after another all necessary reactions in the respective superposed worlds to restore white in the antibaryon come to completion. Worlds that were different so far become equal and merge again. The number of superposed worlds drops from more than 258 to the 6 possible color-divisions

, , , , , .

The new force law then makes the strength of the colorforce to increase within 10 exp -23 seconds by a factor of approximately 1000 divided by 6. It is not that the colorforce increases in strength with the distance. It is more an increase in time.

This strength then experimentally turned out to be that high that the energy needed to overcome it is much larger than the mass-energy of another 2 new quarks. So before a quark is getting further than 10^-15 meter, a quark-antiquark-pair comes to existence in such a way as to restore white in the actual color-situation.

Color will always be hidden. Quarks will never be free.

Didn’t I mistake here? The new force law comes about because in only one possibility out of a large number the next gluon is hitting the second quark. Nearly all possibilities are misses. But in the case of ways to restore white every possibility is a hit. Although every possibility hits in a different way. So here there is a perfect explanation of color-confinement, but the law that is used to get it is not appropriate here.

How much is the color coupling-constant smaller than 1? One can contribute reactions of more and more steps, until one reaches the desired result. The rest of the reactions, those of still more steps, then obviously don’t count no more. Obviously the occurring number of color constants has finally reduced the amplitude to an insignificant value. That gives a more precise estimation of the color constant.

(Why it is the constant is nearly one? Maybe, when a gluon comes to existence in a quark, it has a very dim chance to become a photon, instead of a gluon. Can the sum of the QCD- and QED-constants be precisely one? Or the sum of their squares? Or what?)

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THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3