Cross Roads - Part 2

The sea of possibilities

The dark voyage

The picture sketched at the previous page, from the red time arrow to the end of the page, describes events in the course of a diamond travel. The moment of passing the time border is the upper corner of a diamond travel and we don't travel diamonds.

We are going to make an AXC cross travel. At page 5, The diamond, we noticed that at an AXC cross travel the part C-X evolves in time from C to X, to end there at X at precisely the same state the traveler has when starting from A and arriving at X. Remember, the starting point from Earth is at A now. Before investigating its consequences in time, let's first compare some gravitational field strengths g, the gravitational force on a point mass of 1 kg at distance r from another mass according to the Newton law of gravitation.

g = G * (mass of 1 kg) * (another mass) / r.

Instead of this we shall always use g / G = mass / r.

You have a ship that is similar to the dark meteorite of page 4. We take it as a homogeneous sphere with radius 10^4 m and mass of about 10^16 kg. With this ship you go on the voyage, from A to the center of the nearest void. There is your destiny: a cluster of dark galaxies.

You are at X, about half way the bright galaxy cluster and the dark galaxy cluster. There is what we can call the Large Time Border, the time border that separates the forward time vacuum of us, our cluster of galaxies, from the backward time evolving vacuum of them, see also the previous page. When you pass the Large Time Border you have a bubble of forward time vacuum around you. As pointed out at the previous page, two other kinds of spherical time borders are present in the ship: a small one deep down in the ship around its mass center, and within that small one a tiny time border around every single particle.

g/G = 4 * 10^-3 at the Large Time Border (just empty space there), caused by all bright plus dark galaxies (= 0.002 + 0.002).

g/G also equals 4 * 10^-3 at 1.58 * 10^6 km around your ship (about the size of the Earth orbit around the Sun), no other significant masses around);

or at about 1 km from you in your spacesuit (100 kg), just hanging there at the Large Time Border, see (a) just below;

or at 4 * 10^-7 m from the center of your ship (100 up to 1000 atoms across, an atom is about 10^-10 m diameter);

or at 0.65 * 10^-12 m (about 1000 fm) around every single particle.

This all is pointed out at the previous page.

g/G of you and your spacesuit at the location of your hand

= You and your space suit / your radius

= 100 kg / the radius of a sphere of 100 liter = 100 / 0.3

= 10^3 at your hand

(a)   100 kg / x = 4 * 10^-3 = 40 * 10^-4

x = ( 2.5 * 10^6 )

x = 1.6 * 10^3 m or about 1 km

g/G of your ship at its surface

= mass (your ship) / its radius

= 10^16 / ( 10^4 )

= 10^8 at the surface of your ship

You made it to the cluster of dark galaxies, to one of the dark galaxies comparable to ours, the galaxy at C. There you are at a location comparable to our Sun in our Galaxy. There is nothing there yet, only empty space - except for the dark stars all around you.

g/G of our Galaxy at the location of our solar system (just empty space there; thus not precisely at the location of the sun or its planets)

= Mass of the Galaxy / (distance Earth to galaxy center)

= ( 8.5 * 10^11 sun mass ) * ( 1.989 * 10^30 kg/sun mass ) / (2.61 * 10^4 ly * 10^16 m/ly )

= 17 * 10^(11 + 30) / 7 * 10^40

= 20

(Rings of mass with a radius larger than 26100 ly around the galaxy center, outside the suns orbit around the galaxy center, tend to cancel each other out, see theorem of Gauss, A sphere of free falling clocks at page 1 of NEG. So we round to just 20.)

g/G (spaceship) = 10^16 / r = 20

r = 10^16 / 20

r = 2.2 * 10^7 m = about 20.000 km.

This is the bubble of forward vacuum around your ship now.

We now go into the ship, (g/G) / (r) = constant,

10^8 / 10^4 = 20 / x,

x = 20 * 10^4 / 10^8 = 2 * 10^-3 m.

Deep inside the ship is a dark spherical region of about a mm across.

g/G (proton) = 1.67 * 10^-27 / r = 20,

r = (1.67 / 2) * 10^-26,

r = 0.9 * 10^-13.

Within the dark spherical region in the mass center of the ship the time border around every single particle is about the size of a nucleus now, a little larger maybe.

Finally you found a star like our Sun, a dark star at a location in the dark galaxy comparable to our Sun in our Galaxy. You orbit around the dark sun, comparable to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. You cannot see in the light of the dark sun. The sun draws light from you and if you were able to detect, to see the drawing, you could see. But now, no, you can't. Is there a planet like the Earth in this orbit?.

g/G of the Sun at the location of the Earth

= Mass of the Sun / (distance Earth to Sun)

= 1.989 * 10^30 kg / (1.496 * 10^11 m )

= 0.89 * 10^8

g/G (spaceship) = 10^16 / r = 0.89 * 10^8,

r = 10^16 / (0.89 * 10^8) = 1.12 * 10^8,

r = 1.06 * 10^4 m.

Going into the ship, (g/G) / (r) = constant.

10^8 / 10^4 = 0.89 * 10^8 / x,

x = 0.89 * 10^8 * 10^4 / 10^8 = 0.89 * 10^4 m.

g/G (proton) = 1.67 * 10^-27 / r = 0.89 * 10^8 = 8.9 * 10^7,

r = (1.67 / 8.9) * 10^-27-7,

r = 0.43 * 10^-17.

The surface of your ship is 10^4 m from the center of the ship. The forward time bubble around the ship has shrunk to about 600 m above the ship's surface. The spherical region in the ship that react dark, has expanded to some 1100 m below the surface of the ship. Leaving a shell of less than 2 km that still reacts bright. The tiny bubble around every proton in the large dark region in the ship has shrunk to more than hundred times smaller than the proton.

Oké, assume you meet there an Earth-like dark planet in the Earth-like orbit around the Sun-like dark star. With your ship you orbit the dark Earth at a height of let's say 1000 km above its surface. For time border calculation it is nearly the same as if the ship has landed, which is not possible. The ship is too heavy, the Earth gravitation is too strong and you consist of matter while the dark Earth consists of antimatter.

g/G of the Earth at its surface

= Mass of the Earth / (Earth radius)

= 5.97 * 10^24 / (6.38 * 10^6)

= 1.47 * 10^11 (see page 4);

The forward time shell at the surface of your ship has vanished. All of the ship reacts dark now.

This g/G = 1.47 * 10^11 of the Earth at its surface equals the gravitational field strength of a proton at 1.07 * 10^-19 m from its center (EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, page 2, paragraph The calculation of the time border). The tiny forward time bubble around the proton shall be three of such bubbles, one around each quark. Since the quark mass is unknown, calculation is difficult, see NET FORCE IN QCD, page 4, Quark mass.

When you cross the Large Time Border and enter dark vacuum, a second time border forms around you, a sphere with you off center in it (EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, page 2, paragraph The calculation of the time border). Whatever mass you have, a large spaceship, only you in your spacesuit, or just a single proton, your private spherical time border is always way around you, there at the Large Time Border.

Suppose near to the Large Time Border there is a space station in the bright vacuum at the Earth's side of the time border. It hangs there stationary with respect to the Large Time Border. (Well, as said, this is not possible; you constantly have to correct small speed deviations from the time border by small rocket blasts.) When you in your ship (10^4 m, 10^16 kg) approach the time border, the space station directs a spotlight at you. In the space station they see you approaching the time border, passing it and continue your journey along the same line with the same kind of motion (free falling thus constant speed or accelerations according to rocket blasts). They see nothing special when observing you passing the time border.

You carry a bubble of forward evolving time vacuum around you. The time border is 100 km away in all directions. After a long time you approach a dark galaxy.

But you are no longer evolving anymore. You had evolved, starting at C and ending at X in precisely the same state as when you approached X from A in bright vacuum. You haven't come to an end at X but your evolution has. At X you don't reverse time but reverse evolution. At X you don't die but end development. Which is a kind of dying too.


We know at the dark parts of their route the light rays from the space station go backward in time. We see them travel from one time border to the other, but in the dark part of the travel we know they travel from the other to the one, in backward time direction. According to page 5 of NET FORCE IN QED, the photon consist of a positron and an electron massless coinciding. In bright vacuum the electron is within the time border around the positron. When entering dark vacuum the time border around the positron disappears, around the electron a similar time border forms, and now the positron is within the time border around the electron. Nor the electron nor the positron had changed position. Only the time borders changed shape.

x-t-diagram with time border

The CPT theorem

When passing the time border, only the time direction, the direction of increasing entropy, changes and nothing else, that's the basic principle we're starting from. In the spacetime diagram no kink appears in worldlines crossing the time border. Especially in its remaining bright core the particle spins as it did in bright vacuum. Time at the two sides of a time border run opposite. So they observe the particle spinning the other direction. If we want the CPT theorem to hold all over the universe, then the electric charge must have been reversed too. What we observe as a positively charged proton, they must observe as a negatively charged proton. When our proton in dark vacuum is supplied by a time border and is observed by them as a negatively charged proton, then their own protons - being charged opposite to the antimatter intruder - must be charged positive.

So there are only protons in the universe. There is no electric charge coming in two kinds, positive and negative. There only is one kind of charge and it can go forward in time (proton, electron) or backward in time (negatively charged antiproton, positron). The backward version is just a positively charged proton or negatively charged electron provided with a tiny time border.

Is it possible to reformulate the CPT-theorem as follows: the wavefunction of a left-handed proton with positive electric charge, in bright vacuum and thus going forward in time is identical to the wavefunction of a right-handed antiproton with negative electric charge in dark vacuum and thus going backward in time.

Suppose an electron in dark vacuum, with a tiny time border around it, emits a photon towards us, the space station behind the time border. The bright vacuum core inside the electron emits a photon that arrives at the inside of the tiny time border. Simultaneously an identical photon, crossing dark vacuum, arrives at the outside of the tiny time border at precisely the same spot. Both photons end their evolution there. The second photon is drawn from the Large Time Border. The drawing is a SER, a Stimulated Emission of Radiation, determining its spot, direction, wavelength, phase and spin (see too OBSERVING DARK GALAXIES below in the column at the right at page 2 of EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE). Simultaneously an identical photon is emitted into the bright vacuum and can be seen by us.

There comes little from the time border. Mainly SER's and further it only can be a random radiation, a thermal radiation, coming from the time border to us.

x-t-diagram with time border

The time border

Could it be there are only colors i, j and k running forward in time and the same colors running backwards in time? The idea is to state there are only three colors, i, j and k and when such a color is in backward time evolving vacuum the color is supplied by a time border around it and is observed by them, backward time evolving people, as an anticolor -i, -j and -k.

For reasons of symmetry between forward and backward time evolving vacuum, we state that their observation of their color i is identical to our observation of our color i. And ditto for j, k and 1, of course.           (7.1)

A particle from us, e.g. a proton, approaches the Large Time Border. At the precise appropriate place in their universe an identical antiproton as they observe it, is drawn from their matter. They know, it is just a proton like theirs, but only running in opposite time direction; an antiproton as they call it. The antiproton is provided with a time border. Inside there is vacuum like ours and a proton as we know it; outside there is their vacuum. They see it approaching the time border. At the moment the time border around the antiproton touches the Large Time Border, both vacuums merge, like a drop of water that touches the water surface below it and merge with it. That moment of merging is the very last moment of the antiproton in their world.

We have seen our proton arriving at the Large Time Border. At the moment the proton passes it, there forms a spherical time border around it and then we just lost contact. It ends its evolution there. That is, the evolvement of interaction of the proton with other matter around it ends there. But we know inside the time border there is our proton, still spinning around its axis as it always did in a tiny parcel of vacuum as it always had. Mind in their world our proton - their antiproton - is drawn from their matter in an anti-entropic way, such that its trajectory, when finally meeting the arrival point at the Large Time Border, forms one single worldline without a kink. Just as if it was one single proton from its origin in our part of the universe going through the time border and finally to its point of drawing from what we see as antimatter.

When they block the drawn antiproton on its way (the drawn antiproton is on its way and then it is blocked), the block must necessarily consist of matter (that is antimatter as observed by us). When the antiproton is blocked at the front side of the block, then at the rear side is drawn another identical antiproton that follows its way as if the antiproton wasn't blocked at all, but passes through the block as if the block wasn't there. Then they have an antiproton in an anti-entropic way drawn from the block, and a separate line segment where an identical antiproton starts its life in an anti-entropic way at its original origin. It traces the line segment and end its life at the front side of the block. The difference from an actual passage through the block, is that amongst other phenomena, there is a little surplus of energy at the front side of the block where the antiproton ends its life, leading to a little higher temperature there. While at the rear side the drawing of the antiproton causes a little drop of temperature because of the drawn energy the drawn antiproton consists of. Measurements on the cooling should decide whether the line segment of the proton's worldline does exist or not.

x-t-diagram with time border

Drawing anti-entropic evolvement

You originate at Earth in A only. There is no natural cause to make you present at C. There is no Earth there, no Earth or anti-Earth. There is no probable line of evolution from C backward time evolving (as observed by us) leading to you at X. As observed from the dark vacuum this would mean anti-entropic evolution must have been enforced from dark matter you consist of, somewhere at the line from C to X. Anti-entropic behavior is entropic behavior, the film of it played in backward time direction - we call it dark behavior.

All possibilities how this could have taken place will interfere in superposition, in the dark vacuum as observed by us, and the most likeliest will turn out to have been chosen, that is how it usually works. Also this time, I assume.

Key is entropic development. A proton doesn't possess any entropic development. Nuclei hardly have, maybe some radioactive decay. Or some returning from an excited state to ground state (the so-called glowing out of nuclei in nuclear reactors), but normally nuclei are in ground state. Consider a travel from our forward time evolving area through a backward time evolving dark area to another forward evolving area far away. Tb means time border.

Bright area 1 (that's us) - tb1 - dark area - tb2 - bright area 2

Suppose the proton departs from A in area 1 and goes in a straight line (as straight as possible) to the time border tb1 and passes it. For convenience we assume no matter or antimatter deviated its path in the dark area. When it emerged at tb2 it enters area 2, still performing the same straight line. In between tb1 and tb2 the proton tracks a line part from tb2 backwards to tb1, but from entropic arguments there are no objections to this since the proton doesn't have any entropic development.

Regard again you at tb1, X in the picture. You pass the time border e.g. at 1000 km/s at 300 K temperature. It seems to fit the best then if you would be converted to matter that has no entropic development. E.g. a decay of you into separate particles would do. Each separate particle then is like the proton, possessing no time development. This looks like some kind of explosion. Well, it is not really an explosion, all the particles are supplied by their binding energy and all the particles become loose from each other. The process draws the binding energy from everything available in the matter you and your ship (the lighter version) consist of. Let's guess it starts with the heat. A part of the ship in fact evaporates (converting to single particles) and the rest cools down. When the remnant has cooled down to near 0 K, the ship has no further entropic development and can pass dark vacuum without objections. That's what we see happening from our stationary space station near the time border.

As observed by them they see a spontaneous creation of a part of you and your ship (the evaporated part) from antimatter atoms and molecules accidentally happening to hang around there (they see it as antimatter). This spontaneous creation warms up the already present part. Then a fully functional ship apparently consisting of antimatter, dives into the time border and is lost. The antimatter that partially assembled the ship, is accompanied by radiation converging to the ship. This radiation, if back-traced to its origin, would turn out to be drawn in an anti-entropic way from stars, dust, gas and an accidental planet. As observed by them, all this is.

If we in the space station would be able to keep track of the evaporated particles, this is what we would see. A part of the evaporated particles just happens to return to our part of the universe. The rest will eventually pass through many lightyears in the dark area and finally be absorbed by dark stars, dark planets or dark clouds of dust, just anything where the traced particle world lines happen to end. Eventually even from another far away bright area behind that, if it doesn't meet any dark matter at all.

This behavior is also found at page2 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, the column at the right, Observing dark galaxies. There a dark star in the dark area draws light from our matter here in our bright area. This dark light then passes the time border, travels onto the dark star's surface and is absorbed there. As observed by us, that is.

And if you go in hibernation that deep that even the slightest entropic behavior is suppressed? Or to move that close near to light speed, that for you time is in fact standing still? Without time there is no entropic development either. Both methods together, hibernation at near light speed, might suffice to pass the dark area. There still will be some evaporation but not much.

IF your flight through the dark area is unaffected by anything dark, THEN you will emerge at tb2 just like that. I have to work out this yet, the passage through the dark area and what when dark inhabitants intercept the ship.

Anyway, cooling alone will not do. The surrounding 3 K background radiation in the backward time evolving vacuum, will constantly try to warm the ship up to 3 K. The ship keeps on evaporating in order to maintain 0 K. Soon it will be evaporated completely.

As a consequence every matter in backward time evolving vacuum - or antimatter in our vacuum - that possesses any entropic development, must be cooled down to 0 K. Otherwise it will evaporate and cool down, and finally evaporate completely. So I predict CERN will not be able to make antimatter molecule assemblages possessing any entropic behavior for a long time. Unless they can keep it cool at 0 K. But then you can do little with it. Every action will rise the temperature a little.

x-t-diagram with time border

Time travel inconsistancies

Let's perform another move. We return to the ship you had at page 6, a large ship similar to the dark meteorite. It is a homogeneous sphere with radius 10^4 m and mass of about 10^16 kg. When you pass the time border, your private time border is all around you, 100 km away. I think you can stop there, decelerate and coming to a standstill with respect to the space station at the other side. Time in the ship is running in the same direction as on Earth and as it is in the space station near the time border.

When you freeze in, you finally would arrive at S. As observed from the dark vacuum, you are created at S along dark behavior processes and then evolved to X, where you did speed up towards the time border and passed it. But inside time evolves as on Earth, and indeed, you can leave the ship at S. You have traveled to the future, just as if you were at your own side of the time border.

Traveling to the future is not special. You always do with one second per second. By freezing in or relativistic time dilation at near light speed, you can travel further into the future, this is nothing new. The view presented so far is free from inconsistencies, as far as I can see now. Only the dark behavior, the anti-entropic behavior when large amounts of antimatter are involved, is a little uncommon.

It feels as if timetravel inconsistencies can be caused in their world, isn't it?

On the planet Craa, somewhere in the backward time evolving region (but not too far from the Large Time Border), the king was killed in a very clever planned act. After this event they send a message to us with detailed explanation how the assassins executed their murder, stated in a language they knew their ancestors would understand. At the other side (our side) the message was drawn from our matter and observed by entangled particles, see Observing dark galaxies at the column at the right at page2 of THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. But we never understand its content, all efforts to translate the message failed. One fine day we decided to send the message back to them as a sign we did receive but did not understand. In a similar way the message is drawn from their matter and observed in a similar way as we did. Of course they did understand, took measures, prevented the murder on their king and caused a timetravel inconsistency.

x-t-diagram with time border

BXD travels

At the previous page we delineated one stroke of the cross, travel AXC. Now for the other stroke, travel BXD. We focus on one single photon. When it traveled AXC, it travels from A to X. Now observe the dark area behind the time border in their own frame. At C a photon is drawn from the matter there in an anti entropic process and proceeds from C to X. (So we supposed our photon to end up in some antimatter, instead of coming from still further away.) There, at X, the forward photon and backward photon seamless meet - in fact it is just one single photon going from A through X to C, only the judgements of the direction of time shifts at X. When we observe the photon in our frame in a manner described in page 1 of SR, the storyline about special relativity, we observe the photon tracing one single straight line going from A through X to C.

Travel BXD means in our area the photon travels from X to B, and in their area the photon travels from X to D. In both frames we see the photon coming in from the other side of the time border. Observed in both frames the development of the photon starts at the time border. So it has to be emitted there. When travel AXC was a travel with two sources (one at both ends of the travel) and no goal, this travel has two goals and no source. No process is determining its wavelength, phase and spin. And at the time border there is nothing, no matter is there to perform the determining task. So therefore I suppose travel BXD doesn't exist. It can exist but there is nothing there to bring it into existence.

Do travels like BXD play no role at all? Regard again the two bright areas with a dark one in between.

Bright area 1 (us) - tb1 - dark area - tb2 - bright area 2

When a photon starts in bright area 2 and heads for us, it two times passes a time border. Between these two borders the photon travels the other direction, but we don't bother about that. We only see it emerging at tb1 and head for us - that's part of a BXD travel. It is part of the image that we at bright area 1, see from galaxies in bright area 2.

So yes, travels like BXD do play a role but not a large one. Most of the light goes towards the time border and little is coming from there to us.