|NETFORCE IN QED|
Worlds in superposition (worlds in the box) have an existence of their own and they do not see each other. But wait: when two worlds are in superposition and you are not in one of them, isn't there a third possibility in superposition with the two others?
In the box are:
1) world 1 (e.g. you with a living cat) and
2) world 2 (you with a dead cat).
Can there be in the box too:
3) world 1 and world 2 (those worlds seeing each other)?
When we say that you with a living cat are “in the box” we mean that this world is totally inaccessible for observation by outside observers. But that is the property of a virtual particle! (or group of virtual particles)
We indeed may consider worlds in superposition as being virtual, for the time they are in the box. As well as we may consider virtual particles being real in their own world. The outside observer experiences the consequences of the interference pattern of the superposition.
Take world 1 to be a proton orbited by an electron forming a spin-0 hydrogen atom. The electron is in ground state in the so-called s-orbital. World 2 is the same atom but there the electron is exited to an orbital called p. Suppose the excited atom goes back to ground state, orbital s, by emitting a photon. What if the photon reaches the other part of the superposition, the hydrogen atom in ground state?
In world 1 there is now 1 proton more and 1 electron. The conservation law of energy is violated in world 1, the conservation law of baryon number too (because of the extra proton) and the conservation law of lepton number (because of the extra electron). So that's why.
Let's call particle creation to the resque. The photon not only calls the ground state hydrogen atom to existence but also its antiparticle in the mirrored version (to maintain agreement with the weak nuclear force). Then you obey the conservation of baryon and lepton number and when necessary that of electric charge too. But NOT that of energy. That is violated now twice as much as before.
In the outside world - the world of the outside observer - this possibility number 3, if happen to be observed, would violate the conservation of energy at the amount of the 2 H-atom's energy-mass. This will not happen. World 3 will not come to existence.
And what about the other way around? Take world 1 to be a photon 1 with vertical polarization and in superposition with it world 2 consisting of a single photon 2 with horizontal polarization. Is it a possibility a world 3 comes to existence by photon 1 emitting an electron that is absorbed by photon 2?
A photon cannot emit an electron just like that. It is against the law on the conservation of energy, charge and lepton number. It can emit an electron-positron pair, but daily-use photons normally don't have sufficient energy to do this. But IF so, after absorption of the e+e- pair the united world 3 would have come to existence. In both world 1 and world 2 the law of energy conservation is violated. In the outside world the violation of energy conservation amounts one photon, 1 or 2. Not much, but enough.
No, world 3 again will not come to existence. If it would have, photon 2 coming to existence right through photon 1, that would have been no problem. Our daily-life photons can go through each other freely without reacting - but of course this is only because they cannot afford a mediating e+e- pair.
But if - just IF that photon might have come to existence - does one really run into trouble? The merged worlds occupy the same part of space, at the same time and in the same orientation; at least in the interference pattern experienced in the outside observer's world. Maybe you and your living cat may have dwelled to the other side of the room, where the other you with the dead cat might have remained position. But a cup of coffee will coincide with its other-world counter-partner, their atoms materialized right through each other. This can only lead to a violent explosion, minding that about 1 out of each 10^15 nuclei from world 1 will appear near enough to a nucleus in world 2 to fuse. So yes, if that only photon comes to existence you will run into trouble.
Are the conservation laws the only protection against superposing worlds coming to see each other? In QED there is another effect. Every time you add a photon-electron coupling to a diagram (a QED-Feynman-diagram) the amplitude of the wavefunction of that diagram diminishes by a factor of nearly 10. The added number of photon-couplings with electric charges when invoking another world is innumerable. The wavefunction contribution of world 1 and world 2 will be nearly equal; but the contribution of their sum is very very very much lower than of world 1 or world 2 alone. Well, let's hope we are save.
QED only works with electric charges and photons between them. But there are no particles making up the world without charge. The u-quark, the d-quark and the electron all have electric charge. The photon hasn't, but photons don't make up the world; they mediate force, the electromagnetic force. Gluons are quite a different story - see the storyline NETFORCE IN QCD.
This all suits well since the worlds 1 and 2 are logically contradicting. They cannot really fit together in one world.
It remains intriguing that, if it wasn't for the conservation laws, logically contradicting possibilities would have contributed to the superposition, albeit in a very low amount. It intuitively enforces the idea that logic is not a basic feature of our universe, but maybe only is a consequence of the quantum mechanical rules as we know them, together with the conservation laws.
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