11 
NET FORCES IN QCD 
O EVISE What happens when a emits a that is absorbed by a ? There are at least 4 ways to interpret this. 1) The gluon seems to know on forehand what is the color of the quark it will go to. At its origin the gluon knows its destination in its lower color, which is looking into the future. 2) The gluon doesn’t know its destination on forehand. It only knows the quark at its origin and bears the originquark’s old color in its upper color and the originquark’s new color in its lower color (in socalled timesymmetric representation). It just sets off as a gluon that is meant to couple with a cyan quark. It boldly goes where no gluon had gone before, intending just to roam around until it has found its cyan destination. There always is one in an antibaryon. 3) It doesn’t matter what its destination is. Only the colorshift counts. A can absorb a +shift . But when this leads to a colored end state nature will take measures. Instead of 8 independent gluon fields we need 6. We investigate interpretation 3) first. If necessary, for any gluoncolorshift one can always unambiguously reconstruct the upper and lower gluoncolors. Because the range of the strong nuclear force is known to be 10^15 meters there always is an afterwards within about 10^23 seconds. So at first sight there seems only administrative difference between the interpretations. But let’s see. There is an antibaryon and an outside observer, by example a neighboring antibaryon. An antiquark from our first antibaryon emits a gluon. We know the color of a quark by the color of the 2 others (in the same baryon). When only 1 quark is known by its color, each of the 2 others exists in a superposition of the 2 remaining colors. When the color of all 3 quarks is unknown before emission our quark exists in a superposition of its 3 possible colors , and . This superposition gives a white impression to the outside observer. “An unknown quark in an unknown antibaryon has a white appearance.” But of course when we enter a world the quark will have one out of its colorpossibilities and none of them is white. When the spin is unknown, each quark is in a superposition of spin +1/2 and 1/2. Before gluonemission our quark is in a superposition of 6 states: spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin 1/2 , spin 1/2 , spin 1/2 . When unknown, the spin of a sole quark is the spin of the superposition and has the appearance of a spin0 quark. But as soon as we enter a quark world it turns out to have spin +1/2 or 1/2. Then the antiquark emits a gluon. For the 6 superposed quark states to be indistinguishably exchangeable each of them must do so in an identical way. When the colorshift of the emitted gluon is unknown, each color emits a superposition of the 3 possible colorshifts 2/6, 0 and +2/6 (we leave out the shifts 1/6, +1/6 and +3/6). This appears as a glueball with respect to the outside observer, a kind of glue3ball consisting of 3 gluons not seeing each other. So if the emitting antiquark hadn’t a white appearance because of lack of knowledge about its color, it has now because of lack of knowledge about the emitted gluon’s colorshift. But when this ”glueball” hits a color the color enters only one gluon world and in none of them the gluon is white. The quark split in 6 before emission. The gluonemission makes the superposition to consist of 3 x 6 =18 worlds, see first half of next column. 

A quark (first 3 columns) emits a gluon (middle 2 columns) which turns the quark into (last 3 columns) 
A second quark (3 col’s) receives a gluon (2 col’s) which turns the quark into (3 col’s). Or passes by (not shown). 

start state 
spin  co lor 
spin  color shift 
spin  co lor 
end state 
start state 
spin  co lor 
spin  color shift 
spin  co lor 
end state 

1  +1/2  +1  2/6 0 +2/6 
1/2 

5 4 6 
1  +1/2  1  +2/6 0 2/6 
1/2 

5 4 6 

2  +1/2  +1  2/6 0 +2/6 
1/2 

6 5 4 
2  +1/2  1  +2/6 0 2/6 
1/2 

6 5 4 

3  +1/2  +1  2/6 0 +2/6 
1/2 

4 6 5 
3  +1/2  1  +2/6 0 2/6 
1/2 

4 6 5 

4  1/2  1  2/6 0 +2/6 
+1/2 

2 1 3 
4  1/2  +1  +2/6 0 2/6 
+1/2 

2 1 3 

5  1/2  1  2/6 0 +2/6 
+1/2 

3 2 1 
5  1/2  +1  +2/6 0 2/6 
+1/2 

3 2 1 

6  1/2  1  2/6 0 +2/6 
+1/2 

1 3 2 
6  1/2  +1  +2/6 0 2/6 
+1/2 

1 3 2 
The 3 quark spin +1/2 end states are identical and merge to one spin +1/2 end state (number1 end states). So do the other identical end states. The end state of the antiquark after emission is precisely the starting state before emission: a superposition of its 6 possible states spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin 1/2 , spin 1/2 , spin 1/2 . In the course of the process 18 gluons have been emitted. The spins of these gluons are fully determined by the spin of the emitting quarks. If the emitting quark’s spin was +1/2, the emitted gluon has spin +1, where after the quark’s spin has changed into 1/2. And if the quark had spin 1/2, the emitted gluon has spin 1, where after the quark’s spin has changed into +1/2. This yields 9 spin+1 gluons and 9 spin1 gluons. The 3 spin+1 colorshift+2/6 gluons are identical and merge to 1 state. And so do the 3 spin+1 colorshift0 gluons and the 3 spin+1 colorshift2/6 gluons. All the same holds for the 9 spin 1 gluons. Precisely 6 gluon states remain in superposition (denoted as spin, colorshift): (+1/2, +2/6), (1/2, +2/6), (+1/2, 0), (1/2, 0), (+1/2, 2/6), (1/2, 2/6). It is as if 6 starting quark states had emitted 6 gluons, turning the quark into 6 end states, suggesting 6 superposed worlds in each of which 1 quark emits 1 gluon and changes the quark in 1 other quark. But this isn’t the case at all. The respective identical states that merge and where the 6 particles do originate from, do not belong to the same worlds. By example the group of 3 number1 end states doesn’t match with any group of 3 identical start states. And any group of 3 identical gluon states doesn’t match with any group identical quark start states or end states. So 6 quark states did emit 6 gluon states which turned the emitting quark in 6 end states. But this cannot be separated in 6 independent worlds. An emitting antiquark then appears white to the outside observer. If it wasn’t for the 3 anticolors in superposition giving it a white appearance from the beginning, it is now for the superposition of the 3 possible colorshifts of the virtual gluon that leaves the quark in a white facade. Is this all there is to color being hidden, to the socalled overwhelming urge for a white color state? The impossibility to know neither a quark nor a gluon by its colors? Of course as soon as one enters a color’s world one sees only 1 specific color. But up until then the color is hidden in calculation. When unknown the second readytoreceive quark exists in a superposition of its six possible colorspincombinations. When the gluon arrives at the receiving antiquark that quark splits in 6, each quark absorbing one colorshiftspincombination out of the gluonsuperposition. That is, each of the 6 receivingquarkstates splits in 6 states. Then the colorshift will always be absorbed by the color of the receiving quark, but a spin +1 gluon will pass by a spin +1/2 receiving quark and a spin 1 gluon will pass by a spin 1/2 receiving quark. So in 18 states out of 36 the gluon will be absorbed. In the other 18 states the gluon passes by without interaction. See the second half of the column (the right part). Once again identical states do merge. In the table one sees the adventures of the second quark that actually absorbed the gluon. As usual it ends up in its 6 possible colorspincombinations. In the remaining 18 worlds in which the gluon had passed by the second quark identical stated merge. The gluon remains in the superposition of its 6 states (denoted as spin, colorshift) (+1/2, +2/6), (1/2, +2/6), (+1/2, 0), (1/2, 0), (+1/2, 2/6), (1/2, 2/6). While the quark merges to its usual 6 states spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin 1/2 , spin 1/2 , spin 1/2 . The situation now is analogue to the propagation of the virtual photon in “The inverse square force law”. From the superposition of the 6 states of the emitting quark 18 coinciding gluonspheres extend with the speed of light, merging to 6 gluonspheres immediately. When arriving at the receiving quark the 6 states of the receiving quark split in 36 worlds. In 18 of them the receiving quark absorbs the gluon after which the quark merged to the familiar 6 quark end states and leaving the resulting interference pattern of the remaining 18 gluonsspheres with a hole in it at the place where it passed the quark. The remaining 18 gluons that had passed by the quark perfectly fit in the hole. Whereafter the 18 gluonsurfaces merge to 6 complete gluonspheres propagating through space. There had been no gluonemission by the second quark. And here we meet a problem: I do not see why the 6fold gluonsphere shouldn’t propagate through space on and on. Forever, in fact. Observed from the outside every time the 6gluonsphere meets a color it splits and merges resulting in one absorption and one another 6gluonsphere propagating around it as if there had been no absorption. Of course the 6gluonsphere has a white appearance. But there is color inside. This doesn’t agree with the known range of the strong nuclear force of 10^15 meters. The gluon is somewhere on the 6gluonsphere. That is, as soon as we have an observation it turns out the gluon is somewhere on the 6gluonsphere. Especially, when the 6gluonsphere had passed a color without interacting this indicates we have entered a world where the gluon did not head for the passedby color. Since the gluon can be anywhere on the 6gluonsphere and since the surface of the sphere increases with the square of the distance, once again an inversely square distancedependence appears. And this is not the distanceproportional increase we know the strong nuclear force to obey. The colorshiftapproach seems to fail. Let’s consider the next interpretation, number 2. NEXT PAGE Up CONTACT 
