9

THE DIRECTION OF TIME Back to the Contents

   A trip to massive particles and gravitation spoiling the superposition

 
No matter what possibility is chosen, we agreed to live in a universe that behaves normally: in a newly chosen past the photon has to originate somewhere. One can elongate its path backwards along its track through the curved spacetime of the universe. But when galaxy after galaxy has been left aside and the photon gains energy caused by the backward elapse of expansion of the universe, and still no particle is met to serve as its origin, it finally will meet the big bang. Then the big bang has to sustain its existence. Which might be a problem: the nowadays remnants of the big bang are about 3K degrees mainly. Our photon would hardly be permitted to exceed that energy, which is about 1 cm wavelength. The further away the photonís origin, the more energetic that origin must be to sustain its energy in our local environment, due to the expansion of the universe. A different origin more nearby is more likely. An object, a particle that is not present in all possibilities.

This holds only if the photon and the electron after 2 in the figure bear no knowledge of the rest of the universe and that they wouldnít notice the change of the photonís past by referring to data stored somehow-somewhere in their own local environment. Is it possible for the photon-electron-ensemble after 2 not to know the rest of the universe?

We restrict to our local environment around the electron. We are a few moments before 2. The electron had been present in our local environment at rest as it was there all the time. So yes, we have knowledge of the electron all the time. The photon, still part of the outside, is raging toward us with the maximum speed there is in this universe. No, we had no previous knowledge of its existence. No, by no means another particle, either real or virtual, had been able to reach us before the photon with knowledge of its purposes. So yes, we are able not to know anything about the rushing-in photon. Then all possibilities join the superposition: every possible photon from every possible direction; no photon at all; a gluon (since that moves at lightspeed too); and all possible massless neutrinoís (if existing); and - but ho! Is that all possible?

Gluons donít react with electrons. And neutrinoís only do by means of a W+, W- or Z-null particle. Then one of these heavy particles had to appear in our local environment first. Ok, a W+, W- or Z-null particle can appear, but it is unlikely.
Other electrons or electron-like particles do react with our electron by means of real or virtual photons. A quark idem. Those photons are faster than the massive particles they originate from. So electrons, electron-like particles and quarks can only serve as a new place to be born for photons reaching us.


The Standard Model

There is a ”legal” way to get rid of all massive particles in the superposition. Every massive particle has a small gravitational field around it. According to gr it warps spacetime around it a very little bit and a tiny part of that very little bit reaches onto our local environment. This can cause an effect in its phase enough to wrest a choice from the superposition. The electron will be forced to enter the possibility of the specific massive particle. The particle is moving toward us and the particleís gravitational field strength felt by the electron increases with smaller distance. Gravitational influence of a mass moves towards us with the speed of light. Before any massive particle could have reached us its warp of spacetime had already forced us to enter its world. We are not allowed to remain ignorant of the approach of a massive particle. There canít be a superposition of approaching massive particles and we may skip them from the superposition.
That is, we donít know yet how gravitation and QED fit together. The reasoning so far might be illegal. To prevent overload we just skip the massive particles and hope this is a right decision.

Allright, what possibilities do contribute to the superposition?
1) No particle at all,
2) All photons of all energy, all phases (letís take the phase at the moment of impact), all spins (+1 or -1) and coming from all directions towards event 2,
3) A sudden W+, W- or Z-null appearance at the moment a massless neutrino arrives,
We skip the quarks, all electron-like particles and all massive neutrinoís. We already skipped the gluons.

Possibility 1, no photon at all. We already had no photon all the time, before event 2. This is stable and maintains the existence of the electron at 2. It looks not special - but wait! We can superpose a passing by photon going through the electron without reacting with it. We superpose such possibilities with every photon that does react.

Possibility 2. Every superposed world is a valid world on its own. The world of the incoming and outgoing photon and the electron, obeys the conservation laws. It fits the Compton scattering rules. But we made the choice the transition between the possible worlds not to obey the conservation laws.
All the superposed possibilities of the outside world may differ a lot, its energy-distribution and all its accompanying gravitational fields, as long as they fit with our knowledge of the outside present in our local environment.
The world may end just outside our visible horizon, but we no longer assume so. Instead just outside our visible horizon we assume a sea of possibilities. A herd of worlds in superposition, among which the nothing is just one of them. And each of those worlds has a different future. And a different past.

The electron after 2 and the reemitted photon are correlated particles. Measuring ph 2-3 however reveals nothing about the past of the photon or the electron, as long as ph 2-3 is our designated end-state in all possibilities. It will leave the superposition intact. A measurement of the electron before 2 is of no use either since we choose the electron standing still as starting state in every possibility. It will leave the superposition intact too. A measurement of the photon before 2 - well, we are investigating the possibilities for a photon being acted on without being absorbed by an electric charge. Letís not take for granted we can measure the photon here without disturbing it.

Possibility 3. (Not yet implemented.)

   O  NVESTIGATE


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It is difficult to hit the ball.
But it is easy to pass the brook.
The airsupply is limited.
(Or are there open airstrips in the ball?)



THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4  5
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER  1  2  3  4
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS ON MASSES  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE  1  2  3  4  5
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3
OTHER REMARKS ON BIOLOGY  1  2  3