7

DIMENSIONS Back to the Contents

7

THE DIRECTION OF TIME

   What is a coupling?

 
The coupling might be a process taking time, with details in it, things to happen in the time-interval. The things that happen can remain pointlike all the time or they can occupy some space of some dimension. Electrons and photons may have shapes evolving during the coupling.

In page 7 of my storyline NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION I present an approach to the coupling in which the coupling takes no time nor space at all. But well, this approach is still not yet worked out properly.

In page 5 of my storyline NETFORCES IN QCD, paragraph “Gluon average speed”, I found some arguments about the strong force coupling time.

In superstrings a coupling takes time and the strings take space. But does the coupling-process cause a delay in the photonís path? If the process happens at lower than lightspeed velocity there would be a time delay. If at light speed, the timedilation is infinite, leaving no time at all for the process to evolve. Or would the process be at lower-than-light-speed and skip a part of the coupling space (broken worldline)? This feels murky and we previously decided not to do so. Or would sr locally be not valid? Not preferable too. At this stage it looks if the coupling in superstrings does cause a delay in time. UnlessÖ

Space has 3 dimensions and the 4th is time. At a point we have an electron. Through the electronís location go lines in all possible dimensions. Take the line in the direction of the 5th dimension and curl it up in the direction of the 6th dimension. Curl the line in the direction of the 7th dimension up in the direction of the 8th dimension. Curl the 9th dimension up in the direction of the 10th dimension. You have created now a 3-dim snipeworld (see margin at the right), a torus with a 3-dim surface in a 6-dim space. The torus and our 3-dim space share precisely one point, the location of the electron - and thatís not because of the curvature of any dimension nor is it because of the curling-up of dimensions. The torus is flat (zero curvature) and so is the 6-dim embedding space. The coupling can take its space and time in the torus. An extra time dimension is needed to serve the process in the torus, isnít it? The incoming and outgoing photon go ďthrough the same door at the same moment but in opposite directionsĒ (I hope that isnít a problem). As observed from our local environment the coupling then does take no time.

The torus-space is just a possibility joining the point of our electron. Therefore its overall properties are the same as our local environment. Its 3-dimensionality, the laws of physics holding there, the elapse of time. Does creating an empty universe like this cost energy? If so then the least energy is taken by the maximum curled-up empty torus (providing the minimal non-zero-but-finite 3-dim content) with no curvature and occupying only 1 point of our 3-dim space. The lesser the energy of the torus, the more abundant its occurrence.

Another possibility, superposed with the one in the previous paragraph:
Take the line of motion of the photon at the electronís location. Superpose with it a line that at the electronís location has precisely the same direction but before and after the electron is curved in the direction of the 5th dimension. The line and our 3-dim space share precisely one point then, the location of the electron. The line leaves our 3-dim universe there, in this case because of the curling up of the line. It loops its small curled dimension before it arrives back at the electronís location again. There they ďgo through the same door in same direction at the same moment of our timeĒ. The line can curl up or down in the direction of the 5th dimension, both possibilities are superposed. [Figure] At the location of the electron lines in the direction of the other 2 dimensions of our space are curled up in the same way, respectively in the direction of the 6th and 7th dimension, each in upward and downward curled version. They form a torus again of a 3-dim zero curvature surface in a zero curvature 6-dim space. A rushing-in photon at the electronís location then splits in 3 photons, 1 going the upward curled route, 1 going downward and 1 going just right through without reacting with the electron. There is no extra time-dimension needed, as far as I see.

When I was younger I used to imagine particles as 3-dimensional blobs changing shape as a preparation for merging or splitting, a bit like atomic nuclei. For quite a time I used to image the blobs as made of a something that coheres. QED supposes the electron (and the photon too) to consist of virtual photons and virtual electron-positron pairs. The electron and the photon then more resemble a galaxy made up of stars than a single particle. But all these particles are in superposition with respect to each other. They donít see each other. The cloud of virtual particles doesnít cohere. (The possibility of all particles reacting does contribute but is diminished in amplitude by a factor of something like 10 to the power of the number of particles because of the repeated occurrence of the electromagnetic coupling constant.)

The case the coupling delay time is zero, should be better considered as the limit of the coupling delay-time approaching to zero. Or are there possibilities? In one possibility the coupling takes time, in the other it doesnít, and depending on situation they superpose?

When the coupling does take time, in the example just described the mimicking reemitted photon (the ph 2-3) may trace the path of the unaffected photon (the ph 1-3), but it stays behind a little. It stays behind twice the time it takes to couple (letís call it the couplingtime), and twice the distance a ray of light can cover in that time (the couplingdistance). From the moment the photon reaches the electron, the wavefunctions (ph 1-3) and (ph 1-2 + ph 2-3) are distinguishable now. When measured we will enter just one of them. We enter 1-to-3 and the photon is unaffected. We enter the ph 1-2 + ph 2-3 state and the photon is destroyed and replaced by a new one.

In the previous page we declared that when the coupling takes no time, the photon has precisely the same past no matter the photon is or isnít acted on. Our goal, to change to a different past of the photon, hasnít been achieved.

Can the photon emitted at 2 come from a different direction?


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Bend the upper side down to the lower side and glue. You have a cylinder now. Bend the left side of the cilinder in the direction of the 5th dimension to the right side and glue. Since your 3-dim space has no thickness in the direction of the 5th dimension, the cylinder will not be crooked in doing this. You now have a torus with a 2-dim surface and no curvature.













There are games on torusses like this.


SNIPES

Snipes

Alt-enter gives full screen
F1 sound off
At own risk.



THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4  5
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER  1  2  3  4
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS ON MASSES  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE  1  2  3  4  5
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3
OTHER REMARKS ON BIOLOGY  1  2  3