11

NET FORCES IN QCD Back to the Contents

   The propagation of the virtual gluon - Colorshift interpretation

 

   O  EVISE


What happens when a emits a that is absorbed by a ? There are at least 4 ways to interpret this.

1) The gluon seems to know on forehand what is the color of the quark it will go to. At its origin the gluon knows its destination in its lower color, which is looking into the future.

2) The gluon doesn’t know its destination on forehand. It only knows the quark at its origin and bears the origin-quark’s old color in its upper color and the origin-quark’s new color in its lower color (in so-called time-symmetric representation). It just sets off as a gluon that is meant to couple with a cyan quark. It boldly goes where no gluon had gone before, intending just to roam around until it has found its cyan destination. There always is one in an antibaryon.

3) It doesn’t matter what its destination is. Only the color-shift counts. A can absorb a +shift . But when this leads to a colored end state nature will take measures. Instead of 8 independent gluon fields we need 6.

We investigate interpretation 3) first. If necessary, for any gluon-colorshift one can always unambiguously reconstruct the upper and lower gluon-colors. Because the range of the strong nuclear force is known to be 10^-15 meters there always is an afterwards within about 10^-23 seconds.
So at first sight there seems only administrative difference between the interpretations. But let’s see.

There is an antibaryon and an outside observer, by example a neighboring antibaryon. An antiquark from our first antibaryon emits a gluon. We know the color of a quark by the color of the 2 others (in the same baryon). When only 1 quark is known by its color, each of the 2 others exists in a superposition of the 2 remaining colors. When the color of all 3 quarks is unknown before emission our quark exists in a superposition of its 3 possible colors , and .
This superposition gives a white impression to the outside observer. “An unknown quark in an unknown antibaryon has a white appearance.” But of course when we enter a world the quark will have one out of its color-possibilities and none of them is white.

When the spin is unknown, each quark is in a superposition of spin +1/2 and -1/2. Before gluon-emission our quark is in a superposition of 6 states:
spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 ,
spin -1/2 , spin -1/2 , spin -1/2 .
When unknown, the spin of a sole quark is the spin of the superposition and has the appearance of a spin-0 quark. But as soon as we enter a quark world it turns out to have spin +1/2 or -1/2.

Then the antiquark emits a gluon. For the 6 superposed quark states to be indistinguishably exchangeable each of them must do so in an identical way. When the colorshift of the emitted gluon is unknown, each color emits a superposition of the 3 possible colorshifts -2/6, 0 and +2/6 (we leave out the shifts -1/6, +1/6 and +3/6).
This appears as a glueball with respect to the outside observer, a kind of glue3ball consisting of 3 gluons not seeing each other. So if the emitting antiquark hadn’t a white appearance because of lack of knowledge about its color, it has now because of lack of knowledge about the emitted gluon’s colorshift. But when this ”glueball” hits a color the color enters only one gluon world and in none of them the gluon is white.
The quark split in 6 before emission. The gluon-emission makes the superposition to consist of 3 x 6 =18 worlds, see first half of next column.
 
























My bookcase


 
A quark (first 3 columns) emits a gluon (middle 2 columns) which turns the quark into (last 3 columns)
 
  A second quark (3 col’s) receives a gluon (2 col’s) which turns the quark into (3 col’s). Or passes by (not shown).
 
start
state
spin co-
lor
  spin color-
shift
  spin co-
lor
end
state
  start
state
spin co-
lor
  spin color-
shift
  spin co-
lor
end
state
 
1+1/2  +1-2/6
0
+2/6
 -1/2



5
4
6
  1+1/2  -1+2/6
0
-2/6
 -1/2



5
4
6
 
2+1/2  +1-2/6
0
+2/6
 -1/2



6
5
4
  2+1/2  -1+2/6
0
-2/6
 -1/2



6
5
4
 
3+1/2  +1-2/6
0
+2/6
 -1/2



4
6
5
  3+1/2  -1+2/6
0
-2/6
 -1/2



4
6
5
 
4-1/2  -1-2/6
0
+2/6
 +1/2



2
1
3
  4-1/2  +1+2/6
0
-2/6
 +1/2



2
1
3
 
5-1/2  -1-2/6
0
+2/6
 +1/2



3
2
1
  5-1/2  +1+2/6
0
-2/6
 +1/2



3
2
1
 
6-1/2  -1-2/6
0
+2/6
 +1/2



1
3
2
  6-1/2  +1+2/6
0
-2/6
 +1/2



1
3
2
 

The 3 quark spin +1/2 end states are identical and merge to one spin +1/2 end state (number-1 end states). So do the other identical end states. The end state of the antiquark after emission is precisely the starting state before emission: a superposition of its 6 possible states
spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 ,
spin -1/2 , spin -1/2 , spin -1/2 .

In the course of the process 18 gluons have been emitted. The spins of these gluons are fully determined by the spin of the emitting quarks. If the emitting quark’s spin was +1/2, the emitted gluon has spin +1, where after the quark’s spin has changed into -1/2. And if the quark had spin -1/2, the emitted gluon has spin -1, where after the quark’s spin has changed into +1/2. This yields 9 spin+1 gluons and 9 spin-1 gluons.
The 3 spin+1 colorshift+2/6 gluons are identical and merge to 1 state. And so do the 3 spin+1 colorshift-0 gluons and the 3 spin+1 colorshift-2/6 gluons. All the same holds for the 9 spin -1 gluons. Precisely 6 gluon states remain in superposition (denoted as spin, colorshift):
(+1/2, +2/6), (-1/2, +2/6),
(+1/2, 0),      (-1/2, 0),
(+1/2, -2/6), (-1/2, -2/6).
It is as if 6 starting quark states had emitted 6 gluons, turning the quark into 6 end states, suggesting 6 superposed worlds in each of which 1 quark emits 1 gluon and changes the quark in 1 other quark. But this isn’t the case at all. The respective identical states that merge and where the 6 particles do originate from, do not belong to the same worlds. By example the group of 3 number-1 end states doesn’t match with any group of 3 identical start states. And any group of 3 identical gluon states doesn’t match with any group identical quark start states or end states.
So 6 quark states did emit 6 gluon states which turned the emitting quark in 6 end states. But this cannot be separated in 6 independent worlds.

An emitting antiquark then appears white to the outside observer. If it wasn’t for the 3 anticolors in superposition giving it a white appearance from the beginning, it is now for the superposition of the 3 possible colorshifts of the virtual gluon that leaves the quark in a white facade. Is this all there is to color being hidden, to the so-called overwhelming urge for a white color state? The impossibility to know neither a quark nor a gluon by its colors?
Of course as soon as one enters a color’s world one sees only 1 specific color. But up until then the color is hidden in calculation.

When unknown the second ready-to-receive quark exists in a superposition of its six possible color-spin-combinations. When the gluon arrives at the receiving antiquark that quark splits in 6, each quark absorbing one colorshift-spin-combination out of the gluon-superposition. That is, each of the 6 receiving-quark-states splits in 6 states. Then the colorshift will always be absorbed by the color of the receiving quark, but a spin +1 gluon will pass by a spin +1/2 receiving quark and a spin -1 gluon will pass by a spin -1/2 receiving quark. So in 18 states out of 36 the gluon will be absorbed. In the other 18 states the gluon passes by without interaction. See the second half of the column (the right part).

Once again identical states do merge. In the table one sees the adventures of the second quark that actually absorbed the gluon. As usual it ends up in its 6 possible color-spin-combinations.

In the remaining 18 worlds in which the gluon had passed by the second quark identical stated merge. The gluon remains in the superposition of its 6 states (denoted as spin, colorshift)
(+1/2, +2/6), (-1/2, +2/6),
(+1/2, 0),      (-1/2, 0),
(+1/2, -2/6), (-1/2, -2/6).
While the quark merges to its usual 6 states
spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 , spin +1/2 ,
spin -1/2 , spin -1/2 , spin -1/2 .

The situation now is analogue to the propagation of the virtual photon in “The inverse square force law”. From the superposition of the 6 states of the emitting quark 18 coinciding gluon-spheres extend with the speed of light, merging to 6 gluon-spheres immediately. When arriving at the receiving quark the 6 states of the receiving quark split in 36 worlds. In 18 of them the receiving quark absorbs the gluon after which the quark merged to the familiar 6 quark end states and leaving the resulting interference pattern of the remaining 18 gluons-spheres with a hole in it at the place where it passed the quark. The remaining 18 gluons that had passed by the quark perfectly fit in the hole. Whereafter the 18 gluon-surfaces merge to 6 complete gluon-spheres propagating through space. There had been no gluon-emission by the second quark.

And here we meet a problem: I do not see why the 6-fold gluon-sphere shouldn’t propagate through space on and on. Forever, in fact. Observed from the outside every time the 6-gluon-sphere meets a color it splits and merges resulting in one absorption and one another 6-gluon-sphere propagating around it as if there had been no absorption.
Of course the 6-gluon-sphere has a white appearance. But there is color inside. This doesn’t agree with the known range of the strong nuclear force of 10^-15 meters.

The gluon is somewhere on the 6-gluon-sphere. That is, as soon as we have an observation it turns out the gluon is somewhere on the 6-gluon-sphere. Especially, when the 6-gluon-sphere had passed a color without interacting this indicates we have entered a world where the gluon did not head for the passed-by color. Since the gluon can be anywhere on the 6-gluon-sphere and since the surface of the sphere increases with the square of the distance, once again an inversely square distance-dependence appears. And this is not the distance-proportional increase we know the strong nuclear force to obey.

The colorshift-approach seems to fail.

Let’s consider the next interpretation, number 2.


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“The colorshift approach fails...!”



THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4  5
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: EXPERIMENTS ON THE COLLAPSE OF THE WAVEFUNCTION  1  2  3  4
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: FORWARD BACKWARD TIME DIRECTION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
THE SEA OF POSSIBILITIES: THE DIRECTION OF TIME  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
NET FORCE IN REAL MATTER  1  2  3  4
NET FORCE IN QED  1  2  3  4  5
NET FORCE  1  2  3  4  5
QUANTUM QUATERNION DYNAMICS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10
NET FORCES IN QCD  0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16
THOUGHT EXPERIMENTS ON MASSES  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
NEWTON EINSTEIN KIEKENS GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
QUATERNION GRAVITATION  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE  1  2  3  4  5
SPECIAL RELATIVITY  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12
DIMENSIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
TIMETRAVEL  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8
EXISTENCE  1  2  3  4  5  6  7
CROPCIRCLES BY ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14
ADDITIONS  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9
MATH  1  2  3
EVOLUTION  1  2  3
OTHER REMARKS ON BIOLOGY  1  2  3